is a subgenre of experimental film
. Its history often overlaps with the concerns and history of visual music
. Some of the earliest abstract motion pictures known to survive are those produced by a group of German artists working in the early 1920s, a movement referred to as "Absolute" Film: Walter Ruttmann
, Hans Richter (artist)
, Viking Eggeling
and Oskar Fischinger
. These artists present different approaches to abstraction-in-motion: as an analogue to music, or as the creation of an absolute
language of form, a desire common to early abstract art
. Ruttmann wrote of his film work as 'painting in time.'
- James, David. "The Most Typical Avant-Garde" [UC Press]
- Malcolm Le Grice, Abstract Film and Beyond. [MIT Press, 1981]
- William Moritz, Optical Poetry. [Indiana University Press, 2004]
- Sitney, P. Adams. "Visionary Film"
- William Wees, Light Moving in Time. [University of California Press, 1992]
- Andreas Weiland,"Hamburg Memories" [review of 3 films by Malcolm Le Grice, and by other experimental filmmakers], in: ART IN SOCIETY, No. 3 (http://www.art-in-society.de/AS3/Weiland/Hamburg.shtml)