is refusing to vote in an election or in a parliamentary vote. It may also refer to:
- abstentionism, standing for election to an assembly while boycotting the assembly itself
- abstention doctrine, applied by a court refusing to hear a case which ought to be heard by a different court
- Operation Abstention, code name of the British invasion of the Italian island of Kastelorizo, off Turkey, during World War II, in February 1941.
- abstinence, voluntary restraint from a bodily pleasure, such as alcohol or sexual intercourse