[ey-buhl; for 4 also Norw. ah-buhl]
Buell, Abel, 1742-1822, American silversmith, engraver, and type founder, b. Killingworth, Conn. He engraved a number of maps, including maps of the Florida coast and a large wall map of the United States, the first produced in America after the Treaty of Paris in 1783. He experimented in type founding, cast the first font of native-made American type (1769), and later supplied type to Connecticut printers. He invented machinery for cutting and polishing precious stones, for coining money, and for a period produced copper coins for the state. He also established in 1795, at New Haven, one of the first cotton mills in the country (which soon failed), and was involved in many other projects.

See biography by L. C. Wroth (rev. ed. 1958).

Abel, in the Bible, son of Adam and Eve, a shepherd, killed by his older brother, Cain; in the Gospel of St. Matthew, mentioned as the first martyr.
Abel, in the Bible. 1 Ostensibly a place name. The RSV text does not give the name. 2 See Abel-beth-maachah.
Abel, Sir Frederick Augustus, 1826-1902, English chemist, an authority on explosives. He was professor of chemistry at the Royal Military Academy (1851-55) and chemist to the War Dept. and government referee (1854-88). Among his achievements are improvements in the manufacture of guncotton; the invention, with Sir James Dewar, of cordite; a study, in collaboration with Sir Andrew Noble, Scottish physicist, of the behavior of black powder when fired; and the invention of an instrument used in the Abel test, named for him, to determine the flash point of petroleum.
Abel, I. W. (Iorwith Wilbur Abel), 1908-87, American labor leader, b. Magnolia, Ohio. In 1925 he went to work in a rolling mill in Canton, Ohio, and was appointed (1937) staff representative of the organization that became the United Steelworkers of America. From 1942 to 1952 he was the union's district director for the Canton area. In 1953 he became secretary-treasurer of the union and served (1965-77) as its third president. In 1965 he was also elected a vice president of the AFL-CIO.
Abel, John Jacob, 1857-1938, American pharmacologist, b. Cleveland, grad. Univ. of Michigan, 1883, M.D. Univ. of Strasbourg, 1888. Professor of pharmacology (1893-1932) and director of the laboratory for endocrine research (from 1932) at Johns Hopkins, he is known for the isolation of epinephrine (adrenaline) in 1898 and later of insulin in crystalline form. Other contributions include the isolation of amino acids from the blood. He was a founder and editor (1909-32) of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Abel, Niels Henrik, 1802-29, Norwegian mathematician. While a student at the Univ. of Christiania (Oslo) he did fundamental work on the integration of functional expressions and proved the impossiblity of representing a solution of a general equation of fifth degree or higher by a radical expression. He investigated generalizations of the binomial theorem, pioneered in the general theory of elliptic functions, and showed that elliptic functions are a generalization of trigonometric functions. Commutative groups are also called Abelian groups in his honor. He died of tuberculosis at the age of 26, leaving contributions that rank him as one of the greatest mathematicians of the 19th cent.

See O. Ore, Niels Henrik Abel: Mathematician Extraordinary (1957, repr. 1973).

Abel, Thomas: see Abell, Thomas.

Abel-beth-maachah - meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of Israel, in the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of Naphtali.

It was a place of considerable strength and importance. It is called a "mother in Israel", i.e., a metropolis (2 Sam. 20:19). It was besieged by Joab (2 Sam. 20:14), by Benhadad (1 Kings 15:20), and by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings 15:29) about 734 BC. It is elsewhere called Abel-maim, meadow of the waters, (2 Chr. 16:4).

Its site is occupied by the modern Abil or Abil-el-kamh, on a rising ground to the east of the brook Derdarah, which flows through the plain of Huleh into the Jordan, about 6 miles to the west-north-west of Dan.

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