Lawrence, Abbott, 1792-1855, American manufacturer and statesman, b. Groton, Mass. Apprenticed (1808) to his brother Amos, a Boston merchant, Abbott became (1814) a partner with Amos in the firm known as A. & A. Lawrence, importers of English manufactures. As agent for the cotton mills at Lowell, he became interested in manufacturing and took the lead in founding (1845) the textile city of Lawrence, Mass. (named for the family), and setting up the mills. He was a reluctant convert to the protective tariff, along with other New England merchants turned manufacturers. His public career included two terms in the U.S. Congress (1835-37, 1839-40), service on the Northeast Boundary Commission (1842), and minister to Great Britain (1849-52). Lawrence supported the work of Louis Agassiz and other scientists, giving $100,000 to Harvard to establish the Lawrence Scientific School.

See biography by H. A. Hill (1884).

Abbott, Berenice, 1898-1991, American photographer, b. Springfield, Ohio. Abbott turned from sculpture to photography in 1923. She was assistant to Man Ray in Paris (1923-25), where she made an extraordinary series of portraits of the artistic and literary celebrities of the 1920s. She began her great documentation of New York City in 1929; many of the best photographs were collected in her book Changing New York (1939). In 1958, she produced a stunningly beautiful set of photographs for a high-school physics text that some critics consider her finest work. She discovered the work of Eugène Atget in 1925 and labored successfully to secure him international recognition.

See her Photographs (1970).

Abbott, Edith: see Abbott, Grace.
Abbott, Edwin Abbott, 1838-1926, English clergyman and author, b. London. He wrote several theological works and a biography (1885) of Francis Bacon, but he is best known for his standard Shakespearian Grammar (1870) and the pseudonymously written Flatland (by A Square, 1884, 6th ed. 1952).
Abbott, George, 1887-1995, American theatrical producer, director, and playwright, b. Forestville, N.Y. He began (1913) in the theater as an actor and, during a career that spanned eight decades, was celebrated as a coauthor, director, or producer of more than 100 Broadway plays, including The Fall Guy (1925), his first authorial credit; Broadway (1926), his first smash hit; and the popular farce Three Men on a Horse (1935, revival 1969). He produced several musicals by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, notably On Your Toes (1936, revival 1954, 1983) and The Boys from Syracuse (1938). His later successes include Call Me Madame (1950), Wonderful Town (1953), The Pajama Game (1954, film 1957, revival 1973), Damn Yankees (1955, film 1958, revival 1994), and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962, film 1966). From 1948 to 1962 Abbott won 40 Tony awards. Fiorello! (1959), a musical he coauthored with Jerome Weidman, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1960. He won a Kennedy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1982.

See his autobiography, Mister Abbott (1963).

Abbott, Grace, 1878-1939, American social worker, b. Grand Island, Nebr. She did notable work as director (1921-34) of the Child Labor Division of the U.S. Children's Bureau. The Child and the State (2 vol., 1938) is her most important publication. Her sister, Edith Abbott, 1876-1957, became dean of the School of Social Service Administration, Univ. of Chicago, in 1924. Her publications include Women in Industry (1910) and The Tenements of Chicago (1936).
Abbott, Sir John Joseph Caldwell, 1821-93, Canadian political leader. He was a graduate of McGill College, where he served on the law faculty (1853-80). He served in the Canadian House of Commons (1860-74; 1880-87) before his appointment to the Senate in 1887. As prime minister (1891-92), Abbott headed a Conservative administration. He is best remembered for being the first Canadian-born prime minister.
Abbott, Lyman, 1835-1922, American clergyman and editor, b. Roxbury, Mass., son of Jacob Abbott. He was ordained a minister in 1860 and was pastor in several churches before succeeding Henry Ward Beecher at the Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn, in 1888. With Beecher he had begun in 1876 to edit the Christian Union, the name of which he changed in 1893 to the Outlook. He championed a modern rational outlook in American Christianity. His works include The Theology of an Evolutionist (1897), Henry Ward Beecher (1903), and Reminiscences (rev. ed. 1923).

See biography by I. V. Brown (1953, repr. 1970).

Abbott is a city in Hill County, Texas, United States. The population was 300 at the 2000 census. Abbott is the birthplace of Willie Nelson.


Abbott is located at (31.883865, -97.075680).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.6 square miles (1.5 km²), all of it land.


As of the census of 2000, there were 300 people, 124 households, and 89 families residing in the city. The population density was 518.0 people per square mile (199.7/km²). There were 144 housing units at an average density of 248.6/sq mi (95.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.00% White, 1.00% African American, 3.00% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.67% of the population.

There were 124 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.9% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.2% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.97.

In the city the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 23.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,917, and the median income for a family was $55,625. Males had a median income of $38,750 versus $20,000 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,062. About 6.0% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 13.0% of those sixty five or over.

People and culture

Abbott is the birthplace of American singer-songwriter and actor Willie Nelson.


The City of Abbott is served by the Abbott Independent School District.


External links

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