Abbott

Abbott

[ab-uht]
Lawrence, Abbott, 1792-1855, American manufacturer and statesman, b. Groton, Mass. Apprenticed (1808) to his brother Amos, a Boston merchant, Abbott became (1814) a partner with Amos in the firm known as A. & A. Lawrence, importers of English manufactures. As agent for the cotton mills at Lowell, he became interested in manufacturing and took the lead in founding (1845) the textile city of Lawrence, Mass. (named for the family), and setting up the mills. He was a reluctant convert to the protective tariff, along with other New England merchants turned manufacturers. His public career included two terms in the U.S. Congress (1835-37, 1839-40), service on the Northeast Boundary Commission (1842), and minister to Great Britain (1849-52). Lawrence supported the work of Louis Agassiz and other scientists, giving $100,000 to Harvard to establish the Lawrence Scientific School.

See biography by H. A. Hill (1884).

Abbott, Berenice, 1898-1991, American photographer, b. Springfield, Ohio. Abbott turned from sculpture to photography in 1923. She was assistant to Man Ray in Paris (1923-25), where she made an extraordinary series of portraits of the artistic and literary celebrities of the 1920s. She began her great documentation of New York City in 1929; many of the best photographs were collected in her book Changing New York (1939). In 1958, she produced a stunningly beautiful set of photographs for a high-school physics text that some critics consider her finest work. She discovered the work of Eugène Atget in 1925 and labored successfully to secure him international recognition.

See her Photographs (1970).

Abbott, Edith: see Abbott, Grace.
Abbott, Edwin Abbott, 1838-1926, English clergyman and author, b. London. He wrote several theological works and a biography (1885) of Francis Bacon, but he is best known for his standard Shakespearian Grammar (1870) and the pseudonymously written Flatland (by A Square, 1884, 6th ed. 1952).
Abbott, George, 1887-1995, American theatrical producer, director, and playwright, b. Forestville, N.Y. He began (1913) in the theater as an actor and, during a career that spanned eight decades, was celebrated as a coauthor, director, or producer of more than 100 Broadway plays, including The Fall Guy (1925), his first authorial credit; Broadway (1926), his first smash hit; and the popular farce Three Men on a Horse (1935, revival 1969). He produced several musicals by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, notably On Your Toes (1936, revival 1954, 1983) and The Boys from Syracuse (1938). His later successes include Call Me Madame (1950), Wonderful Town (1953), The Pajama Game (1954, film 1957, revival 1973), Damn Yankees (1955, film 1958, revival 1994), and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962, film 1966). From 1948 to 1962 Abbott won 40 Tony awards. Fiorello! (1959), a musical he coauthored with Jerome Weidman, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1960. He won a Kennedy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1982.

See his autobiography, Mister Abbott (1963).

Abbott, Grace, 1878-1939, American social worker, b. Grand Island, Nebr. She did notable work as director (1921-34) of the Child Labor Division of the U.S. Children's Bureau. The Child and the State (2 vol., 1938) is her most important publication. Her sister, Edith Abbott, 1876-1957, became dean of the School of Social Service Administration, Univ. of Chicago, in 1924. Her publications include Women in Industry (1910) and The Tenements of Chicago (1936).
Abbott, Sir John Joseph Caldwell, 1821-93, Canadian political leader. He was a graduate of McGill College, where he served on the law faculty (1853-80). He served in the Canadian House of Commons (1860-74; 1880-87) before his appointment to the Senate in 1887. As prime minister (1891-92), Abbott headed a Conservative administration. He is best remembered for being the first Canadian-born prime minister.
Abbott, Lyman, 1835-1922, American clergyman and editor, b. Roxbury, Mass., son of Jacob Abbott. He was ordained a minister in 1860 and was pastor in several churches before succeeding Henry Ward Beecher at the Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn, in 1888. With Beecher he had begun in 1876 to edit the Christian Union, the name of which he changed in 1893 to the Outlook. He championed a modern rational outlook in American Christianity. His works include The Theology of an Evolutionist (1897), Henry Ward Beecher (1903), and Reminiscences (rev. ed. 1923).

See biography by I. V. Brown (1953, repr. 1970).

(born July 11, 1834, Lowell, Mass., U.S.—died July 17, 1903, London, Eng.) U.S.-born British painter, etcher, and lithographer. He attended West Point but soon abandoned the army for art. In 1855 he arrived in Paris to study painting and adopted a bohemian lifestyle. In 1863 he moved to London, where he had considerable success, becoming widely famous for his wit and large public presence. During the 1860s and '70s he began to use musical terms in the h1s of his paintings, such as Symphony and Harmony, reflecting his belief in the “correspondences” between the arts. During this period he started to paint his “nocturnes”—scenes of London, especially of Chelsea, that have poetic intensity. For them he evolved a special technique by which paint, in a very liquid state he called a sauce, was stroked onto the canvas in fast sweeps of the brush, somewhat in the manner of Japanese calligraphy (he was an outspoken advocate of Japanese arts). From the 1870s onward he was preoccupied by the problems of portrait painting, creating a number of masterpieces, including Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1: The Artist's Mother (1871–72), known as Whistler's Mother. These paintings underline his aestheticism, his liking for simple forms and muted tones, and his dependence on the 17th-century Spanish painter Diego Velázquez. In 1877 he brought a libel suit against John Ruskin for attacking his Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875); he won his case but received damages of only a farthing, and the costs of the suit temporarily bankrupted him. Considered one of the leading painters of his day, after his death his reputation declined. Only in the later 20th century did Whistler begin to receive serious acclaim once again.

Learn more about Whistler, James (Abbott) McNeill with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 12, 1821, St. Andrews, Lower Canada—died Oct. 30, 1893, Montreal, Que., Can.) Canadian prime minister (1891–92). Educated at McGill University in Montreal, he became a lawyer in 1847 and was made queen's counsel in 1862. He was dean of McGill University law school from 1855 to 1880. After serving in the legislative assembly (1857–74, 1880–87), he was appointed to the Senate and became government leader. Upon the death of John Macdonald, he became the compromise choice for prime minister. Ill health forced his resignation in 1892.

Learn more about Abbott, Sir John (Joseph Caldwell) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lyman Abbott, 1901.

(born Dec. 18, 1835, Roxbury, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 22, 1922, New York, N.Y.) U.S. minister. Son of the writer Jacob Abbott (1803–79), he left law practice to study theology and was ordained in 1860. He became editor of the Illustrated Christian Weekly in 1870 and editor in chief of Henry Ward Beecher's Christian Union in 1881. In 1888 he succeeded to Beecher's pulpit in Brooklyn. A leading exponent of the Social Gospel movement, he sought to apply Christianity to social and industrial problems, rejecting both socialism and laissez-faire economics. On other problems Abbott presented the viewpoint of liberal evangelical Protestantism.

Learn more about Abbott, Lyman with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 11, 1834, Lowell, Mass., U.S.—died July 17, 1903, London, Eng.) U.S.-born British painter, etcher, and lithographer. He attended West Point but soon abandoned the army for art. In 1855 he arrived in Paris to study painting and adopted a bohemian lifestyle. In 1863 he moved to London, where he had considerable success, becoming widely famous for his wit and large public presence. During the 1860s and '70s he began to use musical terms in the h1s of his paintings, such as Symphony and Harmony, reflecting his belief in the “correspondences” between the arts. During this period he started to paint his “nocturnes”—scenes of London, especially of Chelsea, that have poetic intensity. For them he evolved a special technique by which paint, in a very liquid state he called a sauce, was stroked onto the canvas in fast sweeps of the brush, somewhat in the manner of Japanese calligraphy (he was an outspoken advocate of Japanese arts). From the 1870s onward he was preoccupied by the problems of portrait painting, creating a number of masterpieces, including Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1: The Artist's Mother (1871–72), known as Whistler's Mother. These paintings underline his aestheticism, his liking for simple forms and muted tones, and his dependence on the 17th-century Spanish painter Diego Velázquez. In 1877 he brought a libel suit against John Ruskin for attacking his Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875); he won his case but received damages of only a farthing, and the costs of the suit temporarily bankrupted him. Considered one of the leading painters of his day, after his death his reputation declined. Only in the later 20th century did Whistler begin to receive serious acclaim once again.

Learn more about Whistler, James (Abbott) McNeill with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 17, 1878, Grand Island, Neb., U.S.—died June 19, 1939, Chicago, Ill.) U.S. social worker, public administrator, educator, and reformer. She graduated from Grand Island College and did graduate work at the University of Nebraska and the University of Chicago, receiving a Ph.D. in political science in 1909. In 1908 she began working at Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago, where she cofounded the Immigrants' Protective League. As director of the U.S. Children's Bureau (1921–34), she fought to end child labour through legislation and restrictions on federal contracts. She worked to win public approval of a constitutional amendment prohibiting child labour; though submitted to the states in 1924, the amendment was never ratified. Her best-known book is The Child and the State (2 vol., 1938).

Learn more about Abbott, Grace with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 25, 1887, Forestville, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 31, 1995, Miami Beach, Fla.) U.S. theatre director, producer, and playwright. In 1913 he began acting on Broadway, and he soon turned to writing and directing plays, achieving his first of many hits with The Fall Guy (1925). He also wrote, directed, or produced many popular musicals, including The Boys from Syracuse (1938), Pal Joey (1940), Where's Charley (1948), Wonderful Town (1953), and Damn Yankees (1955). He was active in the theatre into the 1980s, directing a revival of On Your Toes at age 95.

Learn more about Abbott, George (Francis) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 25, 1887, Forestville, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 31, 1995, Miami Beach, Fla.) U.S. theatre director, producer, and playwright. In 1913 he began acting on Broadway, and he soon turned to writing and directing plays, achieving his first of many hits with The Fall Guy (1925). He also wrote, directed, or produced many popular musicals, including The Boys from Syracuse (1938), Pal Joey (1940), Where's Charley (1948), Wonderful Town (1953), and Damn Yankees (1955). He was active in the theatre into the 1980s, directing a revival of On Your Toes at age 95.

Learn more about Abbott, George (Francis) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 17, 1898, Springfield, Ohio, U.S.—died Dec. 9, 1991, Monson, Maine) U.S. photographer. She left the American Midwest in 1918 to study in New York City, Paris, and Berlin. In Paris she became an assistant to Man Ray and Eugène Atget. In 1925 she set up her own studio and made portraits of Parisian expatriates, artists, writers, and collectors. She retrieved and catalogued Atget's prints and negatives after his death. In the 1930s she photographed New York's neighbourhoods for the WPA Federal Art Project, documenting its changing architecture; many of the photographs were published in Changing New York (1939).

Learn more about Abbott, Berenice with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 12, 1821, St. Andrews, Lower Canada—died Oct. 30, 1893, Montreal, Que., Can.) Canadian prime minister (1891–92). Educated at McGill University in Montreal, he became a lawyer in 1847 and was made queen's counsel in 1862. He was dean of McGill University law school from 1855 to 1880. After serving in the legislative assembly (1857–74, 1880–87), he was appointed to the Senate and became government leader. Upon the death of John Macdonald, he became the compromise choice for prime minister. Ill health forced his resignation in 1892.

Learn more about Abbott, Sir John (Joseph Caldwell) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lyman Abbott, 1901.

(born Dec. 18, 1835, Roxbury, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 22, 1922, New York, N.Y.) U.S. minister. Son of the writer Jacob Abbott (1803–79), he left law practice to study theology and was ordained in 1860. He became editor of the Illustrated Christian Weekly in 1870 and editor in chief of Henry Ward Beecher's Christian Union in 1881. In 1888 he succeeded to Beecher's pulpit in Brooklyn. A leading exponent of the Social Gospel movement, he sought to apply Christianity to social and industrial problems, rejecting both socialism and laissez-faire economics. On other problems Abbott presented the viewpoint of liberal evangelical Protestantism.

Learn more about Abbott, Lyman with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 17, 1878, Grand Island, Neb., U.S.—died June 19, 1939, Chicago, Ill.) U.S. social worker, public administrator, educator, and reformer. She graduated from Grand Island College and did graduate work at the University of Nebraska and the University of Chicago, receiving a Ph.D. in political science in 1909. In 1908 she began working at Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago, where she cofounded the Immigrants' Protective League. As director of the U.S. Children's Bureau (1921–34), she fought to end child labour through legislation and restrictions on federal contracts. She worked to win public approval of a constitutional amendment prohibiting child labour; though submitted to the states in 1924, the amendment was never ratified. Her best-known book is The Child and the State (2 vol., 1938).

Learn more about Abbott, Grace with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 17, 1898, Springfield, Ohio, U.S.—died Dec. 9, 1991, Monson, Maine) U.S. photographer. She left the American Midwest in 1918 to study in New York City, Paris, and Berlin. In Paris she became an assistant to Man Ray and Eugène Atget. In 1925 she set up her own studio and made portraits of Parisian expatriates, artists, writers, and collectors. She retrieved and catalogued Atget's prints and negatives after his death. In the 1930s she photographed New York's neighbourhoods for the WPA Federal Art Project, documenting its changing architecture; many of the photographs were published in Changing New York (1939).

Learn more about Abbott, Berenice with a free trial on Britannica.com.

U.S. comedic duo that was regarded as the archetypal team of burlesque comedy. Bud Abbott (orig. William Alexander Abbott; b. Oct. 2, 1895, Asbury Park, N.J., U.S.—d. April 24, 1974, Woodland Hills, Calif.) and Lou Costello (orig. Louis Francis Cristillo; b. March 6, 1906, Paterson, N.J., U.S.—d. March 3, 1959, East Los Angeles, Calif.) began performing together in vaudeville in the early 1930s, and in 1938 the pair made their radio debut. Their first successful film, Buck Privates (1941), was followed by more than 30 other slapstick comedies, with Abbott playing a bullying straight man to Costello's childlike buffoon. Their famous routine “Who's on First?” was first performed in the film The Naughty Nineties (1945). Their collaboration ended in 1957.

Learn more about Abbott and Costello with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Abbott is a city in Hill County, Texas, United States. The population was 300 at the 2000 census. Abbott is the birthplace of Willie Nelson.

Geography

Abbott is located at (31.883865, -97.075680).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.6 square miles (1.5 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 300 people, 124 households, and 89 families residing in the city. The population density was 518.0 people per square mile (199.7/km²). There were 144 housing units at an average density of 248.6/sq mi (95.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.00% White, 1.00% African American, 3.00% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.67% of the population.

There were 124 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.9% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.2% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.97.

In the city the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 23.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,917, and the median income for a family was $55,625. Males had a median income of $38,750 versus $20,000 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,062. About 6.0% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 13.0% of those sixty five or over.

People and culture

Abbott is the birthplace of American singer-songwriter and actor Willie Nelson.

Education

The City of Abbott is served by the Abbott Independent School District.

References

External links

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