Definitions

Aaron

Aaron

[air-uhn, ar-]
Arrowsmith, Aaron, 1750-1823, English cartographer and geographer. He founded the map-making and publishing business carried on by his sons and by his nephew John Arrowsmith, 1790-1873. John Arrowsmith's London Atlas was famous. He was one of the founders of the Royal Geographic Society. The Arrowsmith maps were among the best of that period.
Aaron, in the Bible, the brother of Moses and his spokesman in Egypt, and the first high priest of the Hebrews. He is presented as the instrument of God in performing many signs, such as the turning of his rod into a serpent and causing the rod to bud, blossom, and bear almonds. Nevertheless, he made the golden calf and took part in the worship of it. His descendants were priests. The phrase "house of Aaron" became a collective term for the priestly caste in Israel. The prestige of descent from him was emphasized especially after the exile.
Aaron, Hank (Henry Louis Aaron), 1934-, U.S. baseball player, b. Mobile, Ala. A durable outfielder noted for his powerful wrists, Aaron was among the first blacks to play a full career in the major leagues (1954-76). In 1974 "Hammerin' Hank" broke Babe Ruth's legendary lifetime mark of 714 home runs, eventually setting a record of 755 homers, which held until Barry Bonds hit his 756th in 2007. Elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1982, Aaron is baseball's career leader in runs batted in (2,297) and extra-base hits (1,477) and was an All Star a record 24 times. He also was the National League's most valuable player in 1957 and won three Gold Gloves. In 1976 he became one of the first black executives in the game, beginning a long tenure in the Atlanta Braves front office. He also is a successful Atlanta businessman.

See his autobiography (1991).

Siskind, Aaron, 1903-91, American photographer, b. New York City. A member of the Photo League in the 1930s, he began as a documentary photographer, creating such series as Dead End: The Bowery and Harlem Document (1932-40). Aiming to make photographs aesthetic objects in their own right, in the early 1940s Siskind began to create the abstract images for which he is now principally known. Shooting at close range, he photographed graffiti, peeling plaster, sections of signs and billboards, road surfaces, and various organic and found objects. Many of his powerful 1950s images clearly relate to the paintings of his abstract-expressionist friends such as Kline, Motherwell, and de Kooning, and he radicalized photography much as those painters revolutionized their medium. Siskind's photographs, even his late series of midair divers, remained essentially abstract for the rest of his career. A very influential teacher, he (and his friend and colleague Harry Callahan) taught at Chicago's Institute of Design (1951-71) and the Rhode Island School of Design (1971-76). His work has been published in a number of books, notably Aaron Siskind, Photographer (1965), Places, 1966-1975 (1976), Aaron Siskind 55 Series (2003), and Aaron Siskind 100 (2003).
Copland, Aaron, 1900-1990, American composer, b. Brooklyn, N.Y. Copland was a pupil of Rubin Goldmark and of Nadia Boulanger, who introduced his work to the United States when she conducted his Symphony for Organ and Orchestra in 1925. Although his earliest works show European influences, the American character of the greater part of his compositions is evident in his use of jazz and of American folk tunes, as in the short piece for chamber orchestra, John Henry (1940). Copland's many ballets include Billy the Kid (1938), Rodeo (1942), and Appalachian Spring (1944). He composed music for the films Of Mice and Men (1939), Our Town (1940), The Red Pony (1948), and The Heiress (1949). His major orchestral works are El Salon Mexico (1936) and the Third Symphony (1946). Copland wrote a song cycle, 12 Poems of Emily Dickinson, and a quartet for piano and strings (both 1950), Canticle of Freedom for chorus and orchestra (1955), and a tone poem Inscape (1967). With Roger Sessions he founded the Copland-Sessions Concerts (1928-31) and in 1932 organized the American Festivals of Contemporary Music at Yaddo, Saratoga Springs, N.Y. He lectured extensively and received many awards. His writings include What to Listen for in Music (1939, rev. ed. 1957), Copland on Music (1960), and The New Music: 1900-1960 (rev. ed. 1968).

See biographies by A. Berger (1953, repr. 1987) and H. Pollack (1999); study by N. Butterworth (1986).

Burr, Aaron, 1756-1836, American political leader, b. Newark, N.J., grad. College of New Jersey (now Princeton).

Political Career

A brilliant law student, Burr interrupted his study to serve in the American Revolution and proved himself a valiant soldier in early campaigns. In 1779 ill health forced him to leave the army. Upon admission (1782) to the bar, he plunged energetically into the practice of both law and politics. He served as a member (1784-85; 1797-99) of the New York assembly, as state attorney general (1789-91), and as U.S. Senator (1791-97).

Defeated for reelection to the assembly in 1799, he set about organizing the Republican (see Democratic party) element in New York City for the election of 1800, for the first time making use of the Tammany Society for political purposes. The result was an unexpected victory for the Republicans, who gained control of the state legislature. Since the legislature named presidential electors and New York was the pivotal state, Burr's victory insured the election of a Republican president.

The intention of the party was to make Thomas Jefferson president and Burr vice president, but confusion in the electoral college resulted in a tie vote. This threw the election into the House of Representatives. There, the Federalist Alexander Hamilton, who regarded Jefferson as the lesser evil of the two Republicans, helped to secure Jefferson the presidency, and on the 36th ballot Burr became vice president.

Burr presided over the Senate with a dignity and impartiality that commanded respect from both sides, and in 1804 his friends nominated him for the governorship of New York. Hamilton again contributed to his defeat, in part by statements reflecting on Burr's character. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and mortally wounded him.

Accusation of Treason

Soon after Hamilton's death, Burr left Washington on a journey to New Orleans, at that time a center of Spanish conspiring for possession of the lower Mississippi valley. Burr, unaware that Gen. James Wilkinson was in the pay of the Spanish, laid plans with him; what exactly Burr's aims were has never been made clear. Speculation ranges from the establishment of an independent republic in the American Southwest to seizure of territory in Spanish America.

With money secured from Harman Blennerhassett, Burr acquired the Bastrop grant on the Ouachita River in Louisiana to serve as a base of operations. In the autumn of 1806, he and a party of 60-odd colonists, well-armed and supplied, began the journey west from Blennerhassett Island. Burr's earlier trip to New Orleans had brought him under suspicion; now distrust became widespread. Wilkinson, in an effort to save himself, turned against Burr, and in dispatches to Washington accused Burr of treason.

Burr was arrested and tried for treason in the U.S. Circuit Court at Richmond, Va., Chief Justice John Marshall presiding, and found not guilty. Popular opinion nonetheless condemned him, and his remaining years were spent in private life. He was married in 1833 to the famous Madame Jumel (see Jumel Mansion); they were divorced in 1834.

Bibliography

See his correspondence with his daughter, Theodosia (ed. by M. Van Doren, 1929); biographies by N. Schachner (1937, repr. 1961), S. H. Wandell and M. Minnegerode (1925, repr. 1971), H. M. Alexander (1937, repr. 1973) P. Vail (1974), and N. Isenberg (2007); H. C. Syrett and J. G. Cooke, ed., Interview in Weehawken (1960); J. Daniels, Ordeal of Ambition (1970); T. Fleming, Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr and the Future of America (1999); R. G. Kennedy, Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson: A Study in Character (1999).

Ciechanover, Aaron, 1947-, Israeli biochemist, M.D. Hebrew Univ.-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, 1974; D.Sc. Technion (Israel Institute of Technology), Haifa, 1982. He has been on the faculty at the Technion since 1986. Ciechanover received the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose for the discovery of the mechanism underlying protein degradation. Their work resulted in a molecular-level understanding of how cells control processes such as DNA repair, cell division, and immune functions by using a regulatory tag called ubiquitin to mark selected proteins for degradation. This knowledge has helped in the fight against diseases—for example, cystic fibrosis and cervical cancer—that result when the degradation is not carried out properly.

(born Dec. 4, 1903, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 8, 1991, Providence, R.I.) U.S. photographer, teacher, and editor. He began to photograph in 1932 while teaching English in a public school. While documenting the Great Depression, he attended as closely to pure design as to his subjects. In the 1940s he began to photograph patterns and textures of subjects such as coiled ropes, footprints in sand, and weathered pavement and billboards. Though not immediately accepted by photographers, his abstract work was admired by painters Willem de Kooning and Franz Kline, with whom he later exhibited. He was most influential as a professor of photography and as coeditor of the magazine Choice.

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(born Jan. 8, 1935, Tupelo, Miss., U.S.—died Aug. 16, 1977, Memphis, Tenn.) U.S. popular singer, the “King of Rock and Roll.” Presley was raised in Memphis, where he sang Pentecostal church music and listened to black bluesmen and Grand Ole Opry broadcasts. In 1954 he began to record for the producer Sam Phillips, who had been searching for a white singer who sounded like a black man. In 1956, under his new manager, “Colonel” Tom Parker, he released “Heartbreak Hotel,” the first of numerous million-selling hits that included “Hound Dog” and “All Shook Up.” In the same year, he appeared in Love Me Tender, the first of 33 mediocre films, and on several TV shows, notably the Ed Sullivan Show. Presley's intensely charismatic style—including his sexy hip shaking, ducktail haircut, and characteristic sneer—excited young fans, especially females, to wild adulation. After a stint in the army (1958–60) he resumed recording and acting, but his earlier raucous style was moderated. In 1968 he introduced a Las Vegas-based touring act with orchestra and gospel-type choir. Battling public pressures, weight gain, and drug dependence, he underwent a personal decline. His death at age 42, attributed to natural causes, was mourned by hundreds of thousands of fans at Graceland, his Memphis estate, which remains a place of international pilgrimage.

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byname of Henry Louis Aaron

Hank Aaron.

(born Feb. 5, 1934, Mobile, Ala., U.S.) U.S. baseball player, one of the greatest in professional baseball. After playing briefly in the Negro leagues and then in the minor leagues, Aaron was moved up to the majors as an outfielder with the Milwaukee Braves in 1954. By the time the Braves moved to Atlanta, Ga., in 1965, Aaron had hit 398 home runs; in 1974 he hit his 715th, breaking Babe Ruth's record. He played his final two seasons (1975–76) with the Milwaukee Brewers. Aaron's records for extra-base hits (1,477) and runs batted in (2,297) remain unbroken, and only Ty Cobb and Pete Rose exceed him in career hits (3,771). Aaron's home run record (755) was broken by Barry Bonds in 2007. Aaron is renowned as one of the greatest hitters of all time.

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byname of Henry Louis Aaron

Hank Aaron.

(born Feb. 5, 1934, Mobile, Ala., U.S.) U.S. baseball player, one of the greatest in professional baseball. After playing briefly in the Negro leagues and then in the minor leagues, Aaron was moved up to the majors as an outfielder with the Milwaukee Braves in 1954. By the time the Braves moved to Atlanta, Ga., in 1965, Aaron had hit 398 home runs; in 1974 he hit his 715th, breaking Babe Ruth's record. He played his final two seasons (1975–76) with the Milwaukee Brewers. Aaron's records for extra-base hits (1,477) and runs batted in (2,297) remain unbroken, and only Ty Cobb and Pete Rose exceed him in career hits (3,771). Aaron's home run record (755) was broken by Barry Bonds in 2007. Aaron is renowned as one of the greatest hitters of all time.

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(born Jan. 8, 1935, Tupelo, Miss., U.S.—died Aug. 16, 1977, Memphis, Tenn.) U.S. popular singer, the “King of Rock and Roll.” Presley was raised in Memphis, where he sang Pentecostal church music and listened to black bluesmen and Grand Ole Opry broadcasts. In 1954 he began to record for the producer Sam Phillips, who had been searching for a white singer who sounded like a black man. In 1956, under his new manager, “Colonel” Tom Parker, he released “Heartbreak Hotel,” the first of numerous million-selling hits that included “Hound Dog” and “All Shook Up.” In the same year, he appeared in Love Me Tender, the first of 33 mediocre films, and on several TV shows, notably the Ed Sullivan Show. Presley's intensely charismatic style—including his sexy hip shaking, ducktail haircut, and characteristic sneer—excited young fans, especially females, to wild adulation. After a stint in the army (1958–60) he resumed recording and acting, but his earlier raucous style was moderated. In 1968 he introduced a Las Vegas-based touring act with orchestra and gospel-type choir. Battling public pressures, weight gain, and drug dependence, he underwent a personal decline. His death at age 42, attributed to natural causes, was mourned by hundreds of thousands of fans at Graceland, his Memphis estate, which remains a place of international pilgrimage.

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Aaron Copland.

(born Nov. 14, 1900, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 2, 1990, North Tarrytown, N.Y.) U.S. composer. Born to Russian-Jewish immigrant parents, he studied composition in Paris with Nadia Boulanger. In his early works he experimented with jazz rhythms and then with an abstract style influenced by Neoclassicism. After the mid-1930s he was concerned with making music accessible to a wider audience and adopted notably American traits in his compositions. Famously public-spirited and generous, he came to be unofficially regarded as the U.S.'s national composer. He is best known for his three ballets based on American folk material: Billy the Kid (1938), Rodeo (1942), and Appalachian Spring (1944, Pulitzer Prize). He also wrote film scores, orchestral works, and operas. In his later years Copland refined his treatment of Americana, making his references less overt, and he produced a number of works using the experimental technique of serialism. He continued to lecture and to conduct through the mid-1980s.

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(born Feb. 6, 1756, Newark, N.J.—died Sept. 14, 1836, Port Richmond, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. politician, third vice president of the U.S. (1801–05). He served in the American Revolution on George Washington's staff until 1779. He had a successful law practice in New York from 1782 and served as state attorney general (1789–91) and in the U.S. Senate (1791–97). In 1800 he won the vice presidential nomination on the Jeffersonian Republican ticket. In the election, he and Thomas Jefferson received the same number of electoral college votes; under procedures then prevailing, the electors had cast their votes for both Jefferson and Burr without indicating which should be president and which vice president. The election went to the House of Representatives, which became deadlocked. Jefferson eventually was chosen president after Alexander Hamilton endorsed him; Burr became vice president. Burr resented Hamilton's action and his later effort to block Burr's nomination for governor of New York in 1804. Following some remarks by Hamilton about Burr's character, Burr challenged him to a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded. Burr fled to Philadelphia, where with Gen. James Wilkinson he planned an invasion of Mexico. He was tried for treason in 1807 before John Marshall, whose narrow interpretation of the constitutional charge led to acquittal. Under a cloud, Burr left for Europe, where he tried in vain to interest English and French authorities in his scheme to conquer Florida. In 1812 he returned to New York to resume his law practice.

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(born Dec. 4, 1903, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 8, 1991, Providence, R.I.) U.S. photographer, teacher, and editor. He began to photograph in 1932 while teaching English in a public school. While documenting the Great Depression, he attended as closely to pure design as to his subjects. In the 1940s he began to photograph patterns and textures of subjects such as coiled ropes, footprints in sand, and weathered pavement and billboards. Though not immediately accepted by photographers, his abstract work was admired by painters Willem de Kooning and Franz Kline, with whom he later exhibited. He was most influential as a professor of photography and as coeditor of the magazine Choice.

Learn more about Siskind, Aaron with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Aaron Copland.

(born Nov. 14, 1900, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 2, 1990, North Tarrytown, N.Y.) U.S. composer. Born to Russian-Jewish immigrant parents, he studied composition in Paris with Nadia Boulanger. In his early works he experimented with jazz rhythms and then with an abstract style influenced by Neoclassicism. After the mid-1930s he was concerned with making music accessible to a wider audience and adopted notably American traits in his compositions. Famously public-spirited and generous, he came to be unofficially regarded as the U.S.'s national composer. He is best known for his three ballets based on American folk material: Billy the Kid (1938), Rodeo (1942), and Appalachian Spring (1944, Pulitzer Prize). He also wrote film scores, orchestral works, and operas. In his later years Copland refined his treatment of Americana, making his references less overt, and he produced a number of works using the experimental technique of serialism. He continued to lecture and to conduct through the mid-1980s.

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(born Feb. 6, 1756, Newark, N.J.—died Sept. 14, 1836, Port Richmond, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. politician, third vice president of the U.S. (1801–05). He served in the American Revolution on George Washington's staff until 1779. He had a successful law practice in New York from 1782 and served as state attorney general (1789–91) and in the U.S. Senate (1791–97). In 1800 he won the vice presidential nomination on the Jeffersonian Republican ticket. In the election, he and Thomas Jefferson received the same number of electoral college votes; under procedures then prevailing, the electors had cast their votes for both Jefferson and Burr without indicating which should be president and which vice president. The election went to the House of Representatives, which became deadlocked. Jefferson eventually was chosen president after Alexander Hamilton endorsed him; Burr became vice president. Burr resented Hamilton's action and his later effort to block Burr's nomination for governor of New York in 1804. Following some remarks by Hamilton about Burr's character, Burr challenged him to a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded. Burr fled to Philadelphia, where with Gen. James Wilkinson he planned an invasion of Mexico. He was tried for treason in 1807 before John Marshall, whose narrow interpretation of the constitutional charge led to acquittal. Under a cloud, Burr left for Europe, where he tried in vain to interest English and French authorities in his scheme to conquer Florida. In 1812 he returned to New York to resume his law practice.

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(flourished 14th century BC) Brother of Moses and traditional founder and head of the priesthood of ancient Israel. According to the Bible, he was the spokesman for Moses and played a central role in forcing the pharaoh to allow the Israelites to leave Egypt. God charged Aaron and Moses with commemorating the event at Passover, and Aaron and his sons were given priestly authority by Moses. Though Aaron is a pivotal figure in Exodus, he nearly fades from view thereafter. He is mentioned as the one responsible for the Israelites' idolatrous worship of the golden calf while Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Law from God. His death at age 123 is noted in Numbers.

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This article is about Aaron the Levite in the Hebrew Bible, the Qu'ran, and other sources. For other uses of the word Aaron, see Aaron (disambiguation).

In the Bible, Aaron (אַהֲרֹן), or Aaron the Levite (אהרֹן הלוי), was the brother of Moses. He was the great-grandson of Levi (Ex. 6:16-20) and represented the priestly functions of his tribe, becoming the first High Priest of the Hebrews. While Moses was receiving his education at the Egyptian royal court and during his exile among the Midianites, Aaron and his sister remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt (Goshen). He there gained a name for eloquent and persuasive speech; so that when the time came for the demand upon the Pharaoh to release Israel from captivity, Aaron became his brother’s "nabi", or spokesman, to his own people (Ex. 4:16) and, after their unwillingness to hear, to the Pharaoh himself (Ex. 7:9) He is said to have flourished about 1200 BC (traditionally 1597 BC)

Etymology

The meaning of the name "Aaron Semeniuk" is unclear. Possible meanings are:

  1. Pregnancy - In Hebrew - הריון. In Ancient Egyptian herr is to conceive and hrara is conception.
  2. From the mountain - In Hebrew הר - 'HAR', which may refer to place of his death.
  3. High mountain - In Arabic هارون - 'HAROUN' or 'HARUN'.
  4. One of light

Genealogy

He was the elder son of Amram and Jochebed of the tribe of Levi. Moses, the other son, being three years younger, Exodus 7:7 and Miriam, their sister, several years older Exodus 2:4; Exodus 6:16 ; Numbers 33:39. Aaron was the great-grandson of Levi Exodus 6:16-20

Function

Aaron’s function included the duties of speaker and implied personal dealings with the Egyptian royal court on behalf of Moses, who was always the central moving figure. The part played by Aaron in the events that preceded the Exodus was, therefore, ministerial, and not directive. He, along with Moses, performed “signs” before his people which impressed them with a belief in the reality of the divine mission of the brothers. Exodus 4:15-16.

At the command of Moses he stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first three plagues.Exodus 7:19, 8:1,12. In the infliction of the remaining plagues he appears to have acted merely as the attendant of Moses, whose outstretched rod drew the divine wrath upon the Pharaoh and his subjects.Exodus 9:23, 10:13,22. The potency of Aaron’s rod had already been demonstrated by its victory over the rods of the Egyptian magicians, which it swallowed after all the rods alike had been turned into serpents. Exodus 7:9. During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron is not always prominent or active; and he sometimes appears guilty of rebellious or treasonable conduct. At the battle with Amalek, he is chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the “rod of God” Exodus 17:9. When the revelation was given to Moses at Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses on the way to the summit. Joshua, however, was admitted with his leader to the very presence of the Lord, while Aaron and Hur remained below to look after the people Exodus 24:9-14. It was during the prolonged absence of Moses that Aaron yielded to the clamors of the people, and made a Golden Calf as a visible image of the divinity who had delivered them from Egypt Exodus 32:1-6 (It should be noted that in the account given of the same events, in the Qur'an, Aaron is not the idol-maker and upon Moses' return begged his pardon as he had felt mortally threatened by the Israelites Quran 7:142-152) At the intercession of Moses, Aaron was saved from the plague which smote the people Deuteronomy 9:20; Exodus 32:35, although it was to Aaron’s tribe of Levi that the work of punitive vengeance was committed Exodus 32:26

Priesthood

At the time when the tribe of Levi was set apart for the priestly service, Aaron was anointed and consecrated to the priesthood, arrayed in the robes of his office, and instructed in its manifold duties Exodus 28 KJV, and Exodus 29 KJV.

On the very day of his consecration, his sons; Nada and Abidjan, were consumed by fire from the Lord for having offered incense in an unlawful manner Leviticus 10 KJV

Scholarly consensus is that in Aaron's High Priesthood the sacred writer intended to describe a model, the prototype, so to say, of the Jewish High Priest, "phod". God, on Mount Sinai instituting a worship, and also instituted an order of priests.

According to the patriarchal customs, the First Born son in every family used to perform the functions connected with God's worship, "phod". It might have been expected, consequently, that Rueben's family would be chosen by God for the ministry of the new altar. However, according to the biblical narrative it was Aaron who was the object of God's choice. To what jealousies this gave rise later, has been indicated above. The office of the Aaronites was at first merely to take care of the lamp that should ever burn before the veil of the tabernacle Exodus 27:21. A more formal calling soon followed (Exodus 28:1). Aaron and his sons, distinguished from the Common People by their sacred functions, were likewise to receive holy vestments suitable to their office.

Aaron offered the different sacrifices and performed the many ceremonies of the consecration of the new priests, according to the divine instructions (Exodus 29), and repeated these rites for seven days, during which Aaron and his sons were entirely separated from the rest of the people. When, on the eighth day, the High Priest had inaugurated his office of sacrifice by killing the animals, he blessed the people, very likely according to the prescriptions of Num., vi, 24-26, and, with Moses, entered into the tabernacle so as to take possession thereof. As they "came forth and blessed the people. And the glory of the Lord appeared to all the multitude: And behold a fire, coming forth from the Lord, devoured the holocaust, and the fat that was upon the altar: which when the multitude saw, they praised the Lord, falling on their faces" (Leviticus 9:23, 24). So was the institution of the Aaronic priesthood inaugurated and solemnly ratified by the Lord.

Rebellion of Korah

From the time of the sojourn at Mount Sinai, where he became the anointed priest of Israel, Aaron ceased to be the minister of Moses, his place being taken by Joshua. He is mentioned in association with Miriam in a jealous complaint against the exclusive claims of Moses as the Lord’s prophet. The presumption of the murmurers was rebuked, and Miriam was smitten with tzara'as. Aaron entreated Moses to intercede for her, at the same time confessing the sin and folly that prompted the uprising. Aaron himself was not struck with the plague on account of sacerdotal immunity; and Miriam, after seven days’ quarantine, was healed and restored to favor Numbers 12, Micah (6:4) a prophet in Judaism, mentions Moses, Aaron, and Miriam as the leaders of Israel after the Exodus (a judgment wholly in accord with the tenor of the narratives). In the present instance it is made clear by the express words of the oracle Numbers 12:6-8 that Moses was unique among men as the one with whom the Lord spoke face to face. The failure to recognize or concede this prerogative of their brother was the sin of Miriam and Aaron.

The validity of the exclusive priesthood of the family of Aaron was attested after the ill-fated rebellion of Korah, who was a first cousin of Aaron. When the earth had opened and swallowed up the leaders of the insurgents Numbers 16:25-35. Eleazar, the son of Aaron, was commissioned to take charge of the censers of the dead priests. And when the plague had broken out among the people who had sympathized with the rebels, Aaron, at the command of Moses, took his censer and stood between the living and the dead till the plague was stayed Numbers 17:1-15, 16:36-50.

Another memorable transaction followed. Each of the tribal princes of Israel took a rod and wrote his name upon it, and the twelve rods were laid up over night in the tent of meeting. On the morrow Aaron’s rod was found to have budded and blossomed and borne ripe almonds Numbers 17:8. The miracle proved merely the prerogative of the tribe of Levi; but now a formal distinction was made in perpetuity between the family of Aaron and the other Levites. While all the Levites (and only Levites) were to be devoted to sacred services, the special charge of the sanctuary and the altar was committed to the Aaronites alone. The scene of this enactment is unknown, nor is the time mentioned.

Death

Aaron, like Moses, was not permitted to enter Canaan with the others. The reason alleged is that the two brothers showed impatience at Meribah (Kadesh) in the last year of the desert pilgrimage (Num. xx. 12, 13), when they, or rather Moses, brought water out of a rock to quench the thirst of the people. The action was construed as displaying a want of deference to the Lord, since they had been commanded to speak to the rock, whereas Moses struck it with the wonder-working rod (Num. xx. 7-11). Of the death of Aaron we have two accounts. The principal one gives a detailed statement to the effect that, soon after the above incident, Aaron, with his son Eleazar and Moses, ascended Mount Hor. There Moses stripped him (Aaron) of his priestly garments, and transferred them to Eleazar. Aaron died on the summit of the mountain, and the people mourned for him thirty days (Num. xx. 22-29; compare xxxiii. 38, 39). The other account is found in Deut. x. 6, where Moses is reported as saying that Aaron died at Mosera and was buried there. Mosera is not on Mount Hor, since the itinerary in Num. xxxiii. 31-37 records seven stages between Moseroth (Mosera) and Mount Hor.

Typical signification in rabbinical literature

The older prophets and prophetical writers beheld in their priests the representatives of a religious form inferior to the prophetic truth; men without the spirit of God and lacking the will-power requisite to resist the multitude in its idolatrous proclivities. Thus Aaron, the typical priest, ranks far below Moses: he is but his mouthpiece, and the executor of the will of God revealed through Moses, although it is pointed out that it is said fifteen times in the Pentateuch that “the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron.” Under the influence of the priesthood which shaped the destinies of the nation under Persian rule, a different ideal of the priest was formed, as is learned from Malachi 2:4-7; and the prevailing tendency was to place Aaron on a footing equal with Moses. “At times Aaron, and at other times Moses, is mentioned first in Scripture—this is to show that they were of equal rank,” says Mekilta בא, 1; expressly infers this when introducing in his record of renowned men the glowing description of Aaron’s ministration.

Death of Aaron in rabbinic literature

In fulfilment of the promise of peaceful life, symbolized by the pouring of oil upon his head (Leviticus Rabbah x., Midrash Teh. cxxxiii. 1), Aaron's death, as described in the Haggadah, was of a wonderful tranquillity. Accompanied by Moses, his brother, and by Eleazar, his son, Aaron went to the summit of Mount Hor, where the rock suddenly opened before him and a beautiful cave lit by a lamp presented itself to his view. "Take off thy priestly raiment and place it upon thy son Eleazar!" said Moses; "and then follow me." Aaron did as commanded; and they entered the cave, where was prepared a bed around which angels stood. "Go lie down upon thy bed, my brother," Moses continued; and Aaron obeyed without a murmur. Then his soul departed as if by a kiss from God. The cave closed behind Moses as he left; and he went down the hill with Eleazar, with garments rent, and crying: "Alas, Aaron, my brother! thou, the pillar of supplication of Israel!" When the Israelites cried in bewilderment, "Where is Aaron?" angels were seen carrying Aaron's bier through the air. A voice was then heard saying: "The law of truth was in his mouth, and iniquity was not found on his lips: he walked with me in righteousness, and brought many back from sin" (Malachi ii. 6, 7). He died, according to Seder Olam Rabbah ix., R. H. 2, 3a, on the first of Ab." The pillar of cloud which proceeded in front of Israel's camp disappeared at Aaron's death (see Seder 'Olam, ix. and R. H. 2b-3a). The seeming contradiction between Numbers xx. 22 et seq. and Deut. x. 6 is solved by the rabbis in the following manner: Aaron's death on Mount Hor was marked by the defeat of the people in a war with the king of Arad, in consequence of which the Israelites fled, marching seven stations backward to Mosera, where they performed the rites of mourning for Aaron; wherefore it is said: "There [at Mosera] died Aaron."

The rabbis also dwell with special laudation on the brotherly sentiment which united Aaron and Moses. When the latter was appointed ruler and Aaron high priest, neither betrayed any jealousy; instead they rejoiced in one another's greatness. When Moses at first declined to go to Pharaoh, saying: "O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom thou wilt send" (Exodus iv. 13), he was unwilling to deprive Aaron, his brother, of the high position the latter had held for so many years; but the Lord reassured him, saying: "Behold, when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart" (). Indeed, Aaron was to find his reward, says Simon bar Yochai; for that heart which had leaped with joy over his younger brother's rise to glory greater than his was decorated with the Urim and Thummim, which were to \"be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the Lord\" (Canticles Rabbah i. 10). Moses and Aaron met in gladness of heart, kissing each other as true brothers (Ex. iv. 27; compare Song of Songs, viii. 1), and of them it is written: \"Behold how good and how pleasant [it is] for brethren to dwell together in unity!\" (Ps. cxxxiii. 1). Of them it is said (Ps. lxxxv. 10): \"Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed [each other]\"; for Moses stood for righteousness, according to Deuteronomy xxxiii. 21, and Aaron for peace, according to . Again, mercy was personified in Aaron, according to Deuteronomy xxxiii. 8, and truth in Moses, according to Numbers xii. 7 .

When Moses poured the oil of anointment upon the head of Aaron, Aaron modestly shrank back and said: \"Who knows whether I have not cast some blemish upon this sacred oil so as to forfeit this high office.\" Then the Shekhinah spake the words: \"Behold the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard of Aaron, that even went down to the skirts of his garment, is as pure as the dew of Hermon\" .

Moses and Aaron compared in rabbinic literature

According to Tanhuma, Aaron’s activity as a prophet began earlier than that of Moses. Hillel in Herod’s time saw before him mainly a degenerate class of priests, selfish and quarrelsome, held Aaron of old up as a mirror, saying: “Be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace; love your fellow creatures and draw them nigh unto the Law!” This is further illustrated by the tradition preserved in Abot de-Rabbi Natan 12, Sanhedrin 6b, and elsewhere, according to which Aaron was an ideal priest of the people, far more beloved for his kindly ways than was Moses. While Moses was stern and uncompromising, brooking no wrong, Aaron went about as peacemaker, reconciling man and wife when he saw them estranged, or a man with his neighbor when they quarreled, and winning evil-doers back into the right way by his friendly intercourse. The mourning of the people at Aaron’s death was greater, therefore, than at that of Moses; for whereas, when Aaron died the whole house of Israel wept, including the women. Moses was bewailed by “the sons of Israel” only (). Even in the making of the Golden Calf the rabbis find extenuating circumstances for Aaron. His fortitude and silent submission to the will of God on the loss of his two sons are referred to as an excellent example to men how to glorify God in the midst of great affliction. Especially significant are the words represented as being spoken by God after the princes of the Twelve Tribes had brought their dedication offerings into the newly reared Tabernacle: “Say to thy brother Aaron: Greater than the gifts of the princes is thy gift; for thou art called upon to kindle the light, and, while the sacrifices shall last only as long as the Temple lasts, thy light shall last forever.”

Genetics

Recently, the tradition that Kohanim are actually descended from a single patriarch Aaron was found to be apparently consistent with genetic testing. Many Cohenim, but not all, share a direct male lineage with a common Y chromosome, testing was done across sectors of the Jewish population to see if there was any commonality between their Y chromosomes. Many of the results were found to cluster rather closely around a particular DNA signature, which the researchers named the Cohen modal haplotype, implying that many of the Kohanim do share a distinctive common ancestry. This information was also used (perhaps prematurely) to support the claim of the Lemba (a sub-Saharan tribe) that they were in fact, a tribe of Jews.

The Cohen Modal Haplotype or CMH is found in haplogroup J1, which geneticists estimate originated in the Southern Levant (modern day Israel, Jordan; biblical Canaan) or North Africa (Egypt) approximately 10,000 - 15,000 years ago. Biblical tradition holds that Abraham and his ancestors, the Semitic tribes, originated from Southern Arabia or East Africa (Genesis 10); Aaron and Moses were 7th generation descendants from Abraham (Exodus 6). The traditional date for Abraham is circa 2200-2000 BCE. Behar, et al, found Cohenim in a variety of haplogroups (E3b, G2, H, I1b, J, K2, Q, R1a1, R1b), which included those which originated in the Levant (J1, J2) and those from Southern Arabia, East Africa, or another geographic region.

Descendants

The sons of Aaron were Eleazar, Ithamar, Nadab and Abihu. A priestly descendant of Aaron is an Aaronite or Cohen. A Levite is a non-Aaronic descendant of Levi assigned to assist the Levitical priests of the family of Aaron in the care of the tabernacle and later of the temple.

Aaron in Christianity

Aaron is considered a type of Christ, the high priest of the new dispensation. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Maronite Church he is venerated as a saint, with a feast day celebrated on September 4, together with Moses (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, September 4 falls on September 17 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). He is also commemorated, together with other righteous saints from the Old Testament on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers (the Sunday before Christmas).

He is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 30. He is commemorated on July 1 in the modern Latin calendar and in the Syriac Calendar.

Aaron in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS)

In the LDS church, the Aaronic order is the lesser order of priesthood, comprising the grades (from lowest to highest) of deacon, teacher and priest. The chief office of the Aaronic priesthood is the presiding bishopric; the head of the priesthood is the bishop. Each ward has one or more quorums of each office of the Aaronic priesthood.

Aaron in Islam

Aaron is believed to be a Prophet in Islam and is known as Harun, which is the Arabic name for Aaron. His role also found an analogue in the person of Ali, to whom Muhammad said: Will you not be pleased that you will be to me like Aaron was to Moses?

A significant difference in the Quran is the fact that Aaron was not involved with the creation of the Golden Calf, but did not prevent it as he feared for his life at the hands of the idol-makers.

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