The company was created in 1970 from the state-owned companies Sud Aviation, Nord Aviation and Société d'études et de réalisation d'engins balistiques (SÉREB). Starting in 1971 it was directed by Émile Dewoitine and Bernard Dufour.
In 1991 the company helped construct the revolutionary chassis of the Bugatti EB110 Supercar. The chassis was built completely out of carbon fibre, and was very lightweight.
In 1999, Aérospatiale merged with Matra Haute Technologie to form Aérospatiale-Matra. In 2001, Aérospatiale-Matra's missile group was merged with Matra BAe Dynamics and the missile division of Alenia Marconi Systems to form MBDA. Lionel Jospin's Plural Left government initiated the privatization of Aérospatiale.
On July 10, 2000, Aérospatiale-Matra merged with Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany to form The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS).
The company worked with the British company Westland Aircraft on three designs, the Puma, Gazelle and Lynx.