1900 in Australia,
other events of 1901,
1902 in Australia and the
Timeline of Australian history.
- January 1 – The Constitution of Australia comes into force, as the federation of Australia is complete. John Adrian Louis Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, is appointed as the first Governor-General, and Edmund Barton as the first Prime Minister.
- March 1 – Following federation naval and military forces of the States are transferred to Commonwealth control.
- March 29 – The first federal election is held to elect the first members of the House of Representatives and the first members of the Senate.
- March 31 – A national census is held, which indicates the population of Australia is 3,773,801 (excluding Indigenous Australians).
- May 9 – The Parliament of Australia is opened in the Royal Exhibition Building, Melbourne.
- May 22 – The foundation stone for St John's Cathedral, Brisbane is laid by the Duke of Cornwall and York. the church celebrated 100 years of construction in 2006 and is only gothic-style stone building under construction anywhere in the world.
- September 3 – The Flag of Australia and Australian Red Ensign are adopted by the Government of Australia as official flags, following a national design competition.
- December 21 - Construction begins on the rabbit-proof fence.
- December 23 – The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 comes into force, instituting the White Australia Policy.