Although there had been temporary volunteer artillery units formed in Montreal as early as 1828, the regiment has its origin in the 3rd Montreal Battery formed in 1855 as a result of the departure of British regular troops for the Crimean War and the passage of the Militia Act of 1855. Militia forces, including the five field batteries formed, would for the first time be maintained at public expense. In 1856 the Battalion of Montreal Artillery was formed and in 1895 it was renamed the 2nd Montreal Regiment.
In the First World War several batteries of artillery were raised in Montreal and the 2nd Brigade included the 3rd Montreal Battery amongst its four batteries. In a series of reorganizations the battery was renamed the 7th Field Battery, the name it continues to hold. This battery was commanded at the outbreak of the war by Major Andrew McNaughton. Wounded at the 2nd Battle of Ypres, he went on to command the Canadian Corps Heavy Artillery and, in the Second World War, the First Canadian Army. The 2nd Brigade served in the divisional artillery of the 1st Canadian Division for the duration of the war.
In the Second World War the 2nd Field Regiment was once again mobilized in the divisional artillery of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division with the 7th Field Battery amongst its batteries. After training in England it served in Italy from July 1943 until January 1945 when it, along with the 1st Canadian Corps, was transferred to Holland.
After the Second World War the regiments of artillery in the post-war Militia were renumbered and the 2nd Field Regiment was removed from the order of battle. The reorganizations of the 1964 Suttie Commission and the ensuing reduction in the number of units in the Militia would eventually see the 2nd Field Regiment reforming in 1968 with initially two and then three batteries. They were the 7th, 50th, and 66th Field Batteries, each perpetuating a different regiment of the post-war artillery in Montreal.
Today, it is comprised primarily of militia from the city of Montreal as part of the Canadian Army Reserves. After over 50 years of peacetime operations, the regiment fields a single artillery battery of six 105mm C3 howitzers. However, it has sent its members abroad to serve in peacekeeping and anti-terrorist roles and has yearly gunnery exercises.
It is commanded by a Canadian Reserve Lieutenant-Colonel, with a new commanding officer appointed, on average, every three years. The regiment is officially bilingual and functions in both English and French. The Commanding Officers of the re-formed 2nd Field Regiment are listed: