|Narmer||- probably Menes on earlier lists||c. 3100–3050 B.C.|
|Hor-Aha||c. 3050–3049 B.C.|
|Djer||-||c. 3049–3008 B.C. 41 years (Palermo Stone)|
|Merneith||the mother of Den||-|
|Den||-||2975–2935 30 to 50 years(40 years?)|
|Anedjib||-||2935?–2925? 10 years (Palermo Stone)|
|Semerkhet||-||2925?–2916? 9 years (Palermo Stone)|
Information about this dynasty is derived from a few monuments and other objects bearing royal names, the most important being the Narmer Palette. No detailed records of the first two dynasties have survived, except for the terse lists on the Palermo stone. The hieroglyphs were fully developed by then, and their shapes would be used with little change for more than three thousand years.
Large tombs of pharaohs at Abydos and Naqada, in addition to cemeteries at Saqqara and Helwan near Memphis, reveal structures built largely of wood and mud bricks, with some small use of stone for walls and floors. Stone was used in quantity for the manufacture of ornaments, vessels, and occasionally, for statues.
Human sacrifice, later discontinued, evidently was practiced during this first dynasty. It is demonstrated clearly as existing during this dynasty by hundreds of retainers being buried in each pharaoh's tomb along with other animals sacrificed for the burial. The people and animals sacrificed, such as asses, were expected to assist the pharaoh in the afterlife.