In the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotive wheel arrangement, an 0-10-0 is a locomotive with ten driving wheels (five axles) and neither leading nor trailing wheels. Because of that lack, it is not stable at speed and is a type confined to fairly low-speed work, such as switching, transfer runs, slow-speed drag freight, or running over mountainous terrain. In the United Kingdom, this type is known as a decapod (a name which in the United States is applied to 2-10-0 types).
Other equivalent classifications are:
UIC classification: E (also known as German classification and Italian classification)
French classification: 050
Turkish classification: 55
Swiss classification: 5/5
Three 0-10-0s were owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway
The 0-10-0 type proved quite popular in Germany. Several types of freight tender locomotives of this arrangement were built between approximately 1905–1915 after which it was abandoned in favor of the 2-10-0
. Subsequent German locomotives of this type were tank locomotives
, including classes BR82
Four 4100 class 0-10-0Ts (numbered 4100 to 4103) built by Krauss-Maffei
in Germany were imported to Japan in 1912. Based on this design, a total of 39 4110 Class 0-10-0T locomotives (numbered 4110 to 4148) were built in Japan in 1914 and 1917. The last members of the class were withdrawn from service on JNR
in 1950, but some example were sold to private freight railways and remained in service as late as 1971. Four examples were sent to the Korean Peninsula in 1938, but their subsequent fate is unknown.
The 0-10-0 type was the principal standard freight locomotive in Russia and was manufactured in very large numbers. The E class freight locomotive was made up of several sub classes all developed from the same original basic machine. The classes included E, Em, Eg, Esh, Eu, and Er. A number of both the Em and Eg received condensing tenders for working in areas where water supplies were scarce, these then became Emk and Egk respectively. However, these locomotives were experimental and the condensing tender was mainly used on the 2-10-0 SO19-series locomotive. The E class was the largest single class of locomotive in the world with around 15,000 manufactured both in Russia and other countries such as Czechoslovakia, Germany, Sweden, Hungary and Poland. This class even far outnumbered the German 2-10-0 Kriegslok. The class was eventually superseded by the SO class 2-10-0(which can be considered as the further development of the E class), the L class 2-10-0 and the FD class 2-10-2, despite being superseded it was not replaced and the class was widely used until the end of steam in Russia.
Two 0-10-0s saw service on British railways; a suburban tank locomotive
prototype built by James Holden
for the Great Eastern Railway
in 1902, called The Decapod
, and a tender locomotive
, No. 2290
, built by the Midland Railway
in 1919 specifically as a banker
for the Lickey Incline
The 0-10-0 was not very popular in the US and North America in general; probably less than fifty of this type were constructed. For switching work, large 0-8-0s
were preferred, and if more than four driven axles were needed, the preference was for articulated locomotives
, such as 0-6-6-0s
. Out on the main line, a 2-10-0
, with the added stability of its leading truck, or a 2-10-2
with room for larger fireboxes, were preferred.
The first 0-10-0 in the United States was delivered in 1891 to the St. Clair Tunnel Company to haul trains between Sarnia, Ontario and Port Huron, Michigan. Next were a series of 21 locomotives for New York Central Railroad and its subsidiaries for hump yard work. Others included seven owned by Illinois Central Railroad, fifteen by Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, two by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and four, the heaviest built, for Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway.