The Bombay Stock Exchange Limited (मुंबई शेयर बाज़ार ) (formerly, The Stock Exchange, Mumbai; popularly called The Bombay Stock Exchange, or BSE) is the oldest stock exchange in Asia. It is also the biggest stock exchange in the world in terms of listed companies with 4700 listed companies as of August 2007. It is located at Dalal Street, Mumbai, India. On 31 December 2007, the equity market capitalization of the companies listed on the BSE was US$ 1.79 trillion, making it the largest stock exchange in South Asia and the tenth largest in the world.
The Bombay Stock Exchange was established in 1875. Around 6,000 Indian companies list on the stock exchange, and it has a significant trading volume. The BSE SENSEX (SENSitive indEX), also called the "BSE 30", is a widely used market index in India and Asia. Though many other exchanges exist, BSE and the National Stock Exchange of India account for most of the trading in shares in India.
BSE also claims a strategic partnership with Deutsche Borse.
Apart from BSE SENSEX, which is the most popular stock index in India, BSE uses other stock indices as well:
The BSE Broadcast is a large ticker on the wall of the BSE, which continuously displays the latest stock quotes from the market. It also displays on what is described as India's and South Asia's largest video screen –one of the leading business-news channels in India: NDTV Profit.
This new system was unveiled on December 15 2006, when Dr Prannoy Roy, the Managing Director of New Delhi Television (NDTV) Ltd, struck the BSE's opening bell. Mr Damodaran, the Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), said that the ticker would provide information and analysis of the financial world.
Following is the timeline on the rise and rise of the Sensex through Indian stock market history.
1000, July 25, 1990 On July 25, 1990, the Sensex touched the magical four-digit figure for the first time and closed at 1,001 in the wake of a good monsoon season and excellent corporate results.
2000, January 15, 1992 On January 15, 1992, the Sensex crossed the 2,000-mark and closed at 2,020 followed by the liberal economic policy initiatives undertaken by the then finance minister and current Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh.
3000, February 29, 1992 On February 29, 1992, the Sensex surged past the 3000 mark in the wake of the market-friendly Budget announced by the then Finance Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh.
4000, March 30, 1992 On March 30, 1992, the Sensex crossed the 4,000-mark and closed at 4,091 on the expectations of a liberal export-import policy. It was then that the Harshad Mehta scam hit the markets and Sensex witnessed unabated selling.
5000, October 8, 1999 On October 8, 1999, the Sensex crossed the 5,000-mark as the BJP-led coalition won the majority in the 13th Lok Sabha election.
6000, February 11, 2000 On February 11, 2000, the infotech boom helped the Sensex to cross the 6,000-mark and hit and all time high of 6,006.
7000, June 20, 2005 On June 20, 2005, the news of the settlement between the Ambani brothers boosted investor sentiments and the scrips of RIL, Reliance Energy, Reliance Capital, and IPCL made huge gains. This helped the Sensex crossed 7,000 points for the first time.
8000, September 8, 2005 On September 8, 2005, the Bombay Stock Exchange's benchmark 30-share index -- the Sensex -- crossed the 8000 level following brisk buying by foreign and domestic funds in early trading.
9000, November 28, 2005 The Sensex on November 28, 2005 crossed the magical figure of 9000 to touch 9000.32 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange on the back of frantic buying spree by foreign institutional investors and well supported by local operators as well as retail investors.
10,000, February 6, 2006 The Sensex on February 6, 2006 touched 10,003 points during mid-session. The Sensex finally closed above the 10K-mark on February 7, 2006.
11,000, March 21, 2006 The Sensex on March 21, 2006 crossed the magical figure of 11,000 and touched a life-time peak of 11,001 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time. However, it was on March 27, 2006 that the Sensex first closed at over 11,000 points.
12,000, April 20, 2006 The Sensex on April 20, 2006 crossed the 12,000-mark and closed at a peak of 12,040 points for the first time.
13,000, October 30, 2006 The Sensex on October 30, 2006 crossed the magical figure of 13,000 and closed at 13,024.26 points, up 117.45 points or 0.9%. It took 135 days for the Sensex to move from 12,000 to 13,000 and 123 days to move from 12,500 to 13,000.
14,000, December 5, 2006 The Sensex on December 5, 2006 crossed the 14,000-mark to touch 14,028 points. It took 36 days for the Sensex to move from 13,000 to the 14,000 mark.
15,000, July 6, 2007 The Sensex on July 6, 2007 crossed the magical figure of 15,000 to touch 15,005 points in afternoon trade. It took seven months for the Sensex to move from 14,000 to 15,000 points.
16,000, September 19, 2007 The Sensex scaled yet another milestone during early morning trade on September 19, 2007. Within minutes after trading began, the Sensex crossed 16,000, rising by 450 points from the previous close. The 30-share Bombay Stock Exchange's sensitive index took 53 days to reach 16,000 from 15,000. Nifty also touched a new high at 4659, up 113 points.
The Sensex finally ended with a gain of 654 points at 16,323. The NSE Nifty gained 186 points to close at 4,732.
17,000, September 26, 2007 The Sensex scaled yet another height during early morning trade on September 26, 2007. Within minutes after trading began, the Sensex crossed the 17,000-mark . Some profit taking towards the end, saw the index slip into red to 16,887 - down 187 points from the day's high. The Sensex ended with a gain of 22 points at 16,921.
18,000, October 09, 2007 The BSE Sensex crossed the 18,000-mark on October 09, 2007. It took just 8 days to cross 18,000 points from the 17,000 mark. The index zoomed to a new all-time intra-day high of 18,327. It finally gained 789 points to close at an all-time high of 18,280. The market set several new records including the biggest single day gain of 789 points at close, as well as the largest intra-day gains of 993 points in absolute term backed by frenzied buying after the news of the UPA and Left meeting on October 22 put an end to the worries of an impending election.
19,000, October 15, 2007 The Sensex crossed the 19,000-mark backed by revival of funds-based buying in blue chip stocks in metal, capital goods and refinery sectors. The index gained the last 1,000 points in just four trading days. The index touched a fresh all-time intra-day high of 19,096, and finally ended with a smart gain of 640 points at 19,059.The Nifty gained 242 points to close at 5,670.
20,000, October 29, 2007 The Sensex crossed the 20,000 mark on the back of aggressive buying by funds ahead of the US Federal Reserve meeting. The index took only 10 trading days to gain 1,000 points after the index crossed the 19,000-mark on October 15. The major drivers of today's rally were index heavyweights Larsen and Toubro, Reliance Industries, ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank and SBI among others. The 30-share index spurted in the last five minutes of trade to fly-past the crucial level and scaled a new intra-day peak at 20,024.87 points before ending at its fresh closing high of 19,977.67, a gain of 734.50 points. The NSE Nifty rose to a record high 5,922.50 points before ending at 5,905.90, showing a hefty gain of 203.60 points.
21,000, January 8, 2008 The sensex crossed the 21,000 mark in intra-day trading after 49 trading sessions. This was backed by high market confidence of increased FII investment and strong corporate results for the third quarter. However, it later fell back due to profit booking.
15,200, June 13, 2008 The sensex closed below 15,200 mark, Indian market suffer with major downfall from January 21,2008
14,220, June 25, 2008 The sensex touched an intra day low of 13,731 during the early trades, then pulled back and ended up at 14,220 amidst a negative sentiment generated on the Reserve Bank of India hiking CRR by 50 bps. FII outflow continued in this week.
12,822, July 2, 2008 The sensex hit an intra day low of 12,822.70 on July 2nd, 2008. This is the lowest that it has ever been in the past year. Six months ago, on January 10th, 2008, the market had hit an all time high of 21206.70. This is a bad time for the Indian markets, although Reliance and Infosys continue to lead the way with mostly positive results. Bloomberg lists them as the top two gainers for the Sensex, closely followed by ICICI Bank and ITC Ltd.
11801.70, Oct 6, 2008 The sensex closed at 11801.70 hitting the lowest in the past 2 years.
10527, Oct 10, 2008 The Sensex today closed at 10527,800.51 points down from the previous day having seen an intraday fall of as large as 1063 points. Thus,this week turned out to be the week with largest percentage fall in the Sensex.