friendly society

Mutual aid organization formed voluntarily by individuals to protect members against debts incurred through illness, death, or old age. Friendly societies arose in 17th- and 18th-century Europe and England and became most numerous in the 19th century. They trace their roots to the burial societies of Greek and Roman artisans and the guilds of medieval Europe. In attempting to define the magnitude of the risk against which they guarded and to determine how much members should contribute to meet that risk, friendly societies used what is now the basic principle of insurance.

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officially Kingdom of Tonga

Island country, South Pacific Ocean. Area: 290 sq mi (750 sq km). Population (2005 est.): 98,600. Capital: Nuku'alofa. The people are of Polynesian ancestry. Languages: Tongan, English (both official). Religions: Christianity (mostly Protestant; also Roman Catholic, other Christians); also Bahāhamzahī. Currency: pa'anga. Tonga comprises an archipelago of some 170 islands that extends north-south in two parallel chains for roughly 500 mi (800 km). The eastern islands are low and formed of coral limestone; those in the west are mountainous and of volcanic origin, and four of the western islands are active volcanoes. The country has a developing free-market economy based mainly on agriculture. Chief products include fish, coconuts, sweet potatoes, and bananas. Tourism also is important. Tonga is a constitutional monarchy with one legislative house; the head of state and government is the king, assisted by the privy council. Tonga was inhabited at least 3,000 years ago by people of the Lapita culture. The Tongans developed a stratified social system headed by a paramount ruler whose dominion by the 13th century extended as far as the Hawaiian Islands. The Dutch visited in the 17th century, but effective European contact dates from 1773, when Capt. James Cook arrived and named the archipelago the Friendly Islands. The modern kingdom was established during the reign (1845–93) of King George Tupou I. It became a British protectorate in 1900. This was dissolved in 1970 when Tonga, the only ancient kingdom surviving from the pre-European period in Polynesia, achieved complete independence within the Commonwealth. Tonga was at the centre of a financial scandal in the early 21st century when money in a government trust fund was lost while under the management of an American investor. This added to the country's ongoing financial problems.

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Friendly is a census-designated place (CDP) in Prince George's County, Maryland, USA, with an African-American majority population. The population was 10,938 at the 2000 census. Friendly had its own rural post office in the early 20th century, and is now under the mailing address Fort Washington, MD. The name "Friendly" is most associated with the high school which serves most of the greater Fort Washington area. The Friendly area was largely rural until about 1960 and has steadily grown with single-family housing developments. Large, new homes still being added. It is convenient to Andrews Air Force Base.


Friendly is located at (38.750064, -76.974267).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.8 square miles (17.6 km²), all of it land.


As of the census of 2000, there were 10,938 people, 3,506 households, and 2,962 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,610.3 people per square mile (622.0/km²). There were 3,636 housing units at an average density of 535.3/sq mi (206.8/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 13.39% White, 77.67% African American, 0.36% Native American, 5.66% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.98% from other races, and 1.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.19% of the population.

There were 3,506 households out of which 38.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 15.5% were non-families. 12.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.12 and the average family size was 3.36.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, and 7.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.5 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $80,214, and the median income for a family was $82,827. Males had a median income of $43,281 versus $42,086 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $28,545. About 0.2% of families and 0.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.2% of those under age 18 and 0.5% of those age 65 or over.


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