List of Greek words with English derivatives

This is a list of Greek words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages).


There are considerable differences between the various transliterations used to represent the Greek alphabet in English. The table in the sidebar shows:

  • the "traditional" transliteration, in other words that used in Latin, representing classical Greek: this is the form in which most Greek words have made their way into English
  • a "classical" transliteration, commonly used to represent more accurately the pronunciation of Ancient Greek
  • the "modern" transliteration often used for Modern Greek — see Transliteration of Greek into English for some variations.

Greek had no letter h: a rough breathing over an initial vowel or diphthong – ἁ ἑ ἡ ἱ ὁ ὑ ὡ – indicates that the word was pronounced with an initial h, and a smooth breathing – ἀ ἐ ἠ ἰ ὀ ὐ ὠ – indicates the absence of an h, but this has since disappeared in speech, and Modern Greek omits the breathings. An initial upsilon (υ) always had the rough breathing – ὑ – hence hy is very common at the start of words derived from Greek, but no (or very few) such words start with y.

The letter rho (ρ) at the start of a word always had the rough breathing – ῥ – and is transliterated rh. If a rho occurred doubled within a word, the first ρ always had the smooth breathing and the second the rough breathing – ῤῥ – leading to the transiliteration rrh.

For a fuller discussion of these matters, see the Greek alphabet.

Note: the distinction between the rough and smooth breathings as shown above may not be very clear on certain browsers.

Greek Words with Modern Derivatives

The citation form shown is the form most commonly shown in dictionaries, but this form is often unrepresentative of the word as used to form a compound word, hence the Root form is also shown. In the case of verbs, the citation form is by convention the first person singular, present indicative, for instance φάγω (phagō), "I eat", rather than the infinitive ("to eat") as might be more usual in English and other modern language dictionaries.

The "classical" transliteration as described above is used for both the Citation form and the Root form.

The Greek words are shown in polytonic orthography, in other words showing the breathings and the fuller range of accents, as used in Ancient Greek and in Modern Greek for those who do not accept the 1982 "monotonic reform".



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἀ- a- ἀ-
without, not adiabatic, agnostic, ahistorical, amoral, anaemia, anaesthesia, anhydrous, Anonymous, apathy, asymmetric, asymptote, atrophic
ἄβαξ ābax ἀβακ- abac- reckoning-board, used for counting votes abacus, abaculus
Αβραξάς abraxas Αβρακ- abrac- supreme god (gnostic name) abracadabra
ἄβουλος āboulos ἀβουλ- aboul- indecisive abulia, hyperboulia
ἄβυσσος ābussos ἀβυσσ- abyss- bottomless abyss, abyssal, abyssocottidae, abyssopelagic
ἄγαλμα āgalma ἀγαλματ- agalmat- glory, delight, honour, statue agalmatolite, Agalmatophilia
ἄγαμος āgamos ἀγαμ- agam- not married agamia, agamidae, agama
ἀγαθή agathē ἀγαθ- agath- good agate, agathodaemon
ἀγάπη agapē ἀγαπ- agap- love agape, agapanthus, agapanthaceae
ἀγαρικόν agarikon ἀγαρ- agar- from Αgari, a town in Sarmatia agaricus, agaricales, agaricaceae
ἀγαυός agauos ἀγαυ- agav- illustrious, noble agave, agavaceae, agavaceae
ἀγγαρεία angareia ἀγγαρ- angar- impressment for public service angary, angaria, angariate
ἀγγείον angeion ἀγγειο- angio- vessel angiosperm, -graphy, angiodysplasia, angiogenesis, angiogram, angiography, angioma, angiopathy, angioplasty, angiosperma, angiostatin, angiotensin,
ἄγγελος angelos ἀγγελ- angel- messenger archangel, evangelist
ἄγευστος ageustos ἀγευσ- ageus- not tasting or having tasted ageusia, ageustia,
ἅγιος hagios ἁγιο- hagio- holy hagiography, hagiology, hagiographa
ἄγκιστρον angistron αγκιστρ- ancistr- hook ancistrocladus, ancistrocactus, ancistrocheirus
ἀγκυλόπους ankulōpous ἀγκυλοπ- ancylοp- with bent legs ancylopoda
ἀγκύλος ankulos ἀγκυλ-
crooked, curved ancylus,
ἀγκύλωσις ankulōsis ἀγκυλο- ankylο- stiffening of the joints ankylosis, ankyloglossia, ankylosaurus
ἄγκυρα ankyra ἀγκυρ- anchor- anchor anchoring, anchorage
ἀγκών ankōn ἀγκων-- ankon- elbow ancona, ancon, ancon
ἄγνωστος agnōstos ἀγνωστ- agnost- not known agnosticism, agnostic, agnostida, agnostidae, agnost
ἀγορά agora ἀγορ- agor- marketplace agoraphobia, agoranomos, agora
ἄγρα agra -αγρα -agra seizure, trap podagra, pellagra
ἀγρός agros ἀγρο- agro- tilled land agrobiology, agronomics, agrology
ἄγρωστις agrōstis ἀγρωστ-- agrost- a type of grass agrostology, agrostophyllum, agrostistachys
ἄγχω ankhō ἀγχ-- ankh- I press tight, strangle, throttle, choke

ἄγω agō ἀγ- ag- I drive, lead pedagogue, anagoge, mystagogue
ἀγωνία agōnia ἀγων- agōn- agony agonize, antagonistic, agony
ἀδάμας adamas ἀδαμα- adama- unconquerable, diamond adamant, adamantine
ἀδελφός adelphos ἀδελφ- adelph- brother adelphopoiesis, adelphous, adelphous
ἂδηλος adēlos ἀδηλο- adelo- unknown, obscure adelopod, adelospondyli, adelophagi, adelophryne
ἀδήν adēn ἀδενο- adeno- gland adenoma, adenomelablastoma, adenomyosis, adenosine
Ἅδης Hades Ἁδη-
god of the underworld hadean, hadopelagic
ἀδιάβατος adiabatos ἀδιάβατ- adiabat- impassable adiabatic
ἁδρός hadros ἁδρο- hadro- thick hadron, hadrosaurus
ἀδυναμία adunamia ἀδυναμι- adynami- loss of strength or vigor adynamia, adynamia
ἀδιάφορος adiaphoros ἀδιάφορ- adiaphor- indifferent adiaphora, adiaphorism
ἄδυτον aduton ἀδυτ- adyt- not to be entered adytum
ἀέριος aerios ἀέρι- aeri- of the air aerial, aerie
ἀερόβιος aerobios ἀερόβι- aerobi- living in air aerobic, aerobics, aerobiology, anaerobic
ἀηδής aēdēs ἀηδ- aed- distasteful, unpleasant aedes, genus aedes
ἀήρ aēr ἀέρο- aero-
air aerodynamics, aerofoil, aeronautics, aerobatics, airplane, airship
ἄηχος aēchos ἀηχος- anecho- without sound anechoic, anechoic chamber
ἀθήρα athēra ἀθηρ- ather- gruel atheroma, atherosclerosis
ἀθλητής athlētēs αθλητ- athlet- contestant in the games athlete, athletics
αἰθάλη aethalē αἰθαλ- aethal- soot aethalops, ethallobarbital
αἰθήρ aethēr αἰθερ- ether- massless medium ether, ethereal
αἴγαγρος aegagros αἰγαγρ- aegagr- wild goat aegagrus, aegagropila
αἰγιαλός aegialos αἰγιαλ- aigial- beach, seashore aegialornis, aigialosaur, aegialornithidae
αἰγίς aegis αἰγισ- aegis- armour of Zeus aegis
Aἴγυπτος Aegyptos Αἴγυπτο- Αegypto- Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως, Aegaeou huptiōs, below the Aegean, according to Strabo egyptology, egyptologist
αἰκία aikia αἰκ- aec- torture, suffering aecium, aeciospore
αἴλουρος aeluros αἰλουρo- aeluro- feline ailurophobia, aelurodon, aeluroscalabotinae
αἳμα haima αἳμ- em-
blood anemia, anemic, hemophilia, hemorrhage
Aἴολος Aeolus Aἴολ- Aeol- Keeper of the Winds Gk. Myth Aeolic, Aeolian, Aeolotropy
αἰπεινός aipeinos αἰπει- aepi- high, lofty aepisaurus,
αἰπύς or αἰπός aipus or aipos αἰπυ- aepy- high and steep, utter aepycamelus, aepyornis, aepyornithidae, aepyceros
αἰσθάνομαι aisthanomai αἰσθ- aisth- I perceive, apprehend by the senses anesthesia
αἰσθητικός aisthētikos αἰσθητ- aesthēt- of sense-perception, sensitive, perceptive aesthetic, aesthetician, aestheticism, aesthete, aesthetics
αἰσχύνω aiskhunō αἰσχύν- aiskhun- I dishonour, shame aeschynanthus, aeschynite
αἰτία aitia αἰτι- aiti- cause etiology, aetiology
αἰχμή aikhmē αἰχμ- aechm- point of a spear aechmophorus, aechmea
αἰών aeōn αἰών- eon- age eon
αἰώνιος aeōnios αἰώνι- aeonι- lasting for an age aeonium, eon
Ἀκαδημία Akadēmia Ἀκαδημ- akadēm- the school where Plato taught, the field of Academos academia, academic, academy
ἀκακία akakia ἀκακια- akakia- harmless acacia
ἀκαλύφη akaluphē ἀκαλυφ- acalyph- stinging-nettle acalypha, acalyphoideae
ἄκανθος akanthos ἀκανθ- acanth- thorn plant acanthus, acantharea, acanthite, acanthocephala, acanthocercus, acanthodactylus, acanthosaura
ἀκάρι akari ἀκαρ- acar- a kind of mite acarid, acariasis, acarology
ἄκαρπος akarpos ἀκαρπ- acarp- not producing fruit, fruitless acarpous, -carpous
ἀκατάληκτος akatalēktos ακατάληκτ-- acatalekt- not incomplete, incessant acatalectic
ἀκέφαλος akephalos ἀκεφαλ- acephal- headless acephali, acephaly, acephalous
ἀκλινής aklinēs ἀκλιν- aclin- unswerving, without inclination aclinic, aclinic line
ἀκμή akmē ἀκμ- acm-
highest point
facial eruption
acne, acnestis
ἀκόλουθος akoluthos ἀκόλουθ- acoluth- follower anacoluthon, acolyte
ἀκόνη akonē ἀκον- akon- whetstone aconitum, paragon
ἀκούω akouō ἀκουστικ- acoustik- I hear acoustic, acoustics
ἄκρον akron ἀκρο- acro- edge, topmost acrobat, acrocephalus, acrochordidae, acrochordon, acromantula, acronym, acrotomophilia
ἀκροστιχίς akrostikhis ἀκροστιχ- acrostic- headline, end-line acrostic
ἀκτίς aktis ἀκτινo- aktino- ray actinium, actinobacteria, actinodine, actinolite, actinometer, actinomorphic, actinomycetes, actinophryid, actinophryids, actinopteri, actinopterygii, actinozoa
ἂκτωρ aktor ἀκτ- act- leader, from ἂγω, to lead or carry, to convey, bring
altern. from L. actus, (agere, to drive)
ἀλάβαστρος alabastros ἀλαβαστρ- alabastr- a variety of mineral alabaster
ἀλλαντοειδής allantoeidēs ἀλλαντο- allanto- sausage-shaped allantois, allantoin
ἀλέξω alexō ἀλεξ- alex- I ward off, defend Alexander, alexipharmic, alexithymia, alexiteric
ἄλευρον aleuron ἀλευρο- aleuro- flour, meal aleurone, aleuromancy
ἄλγος algos ἀλγ- alg- pain -algia, arthralgia, cardialgia, cephalalgia, fibromyalgia, myalgia, neuralgia, nostalgia, odontalgia, otalgia
ἀλείφω aleiphō ἀλειφ- aleiph- I anoint with oil aliphatic compound
ἄλκιμος alkimos ἀλκ- alc- strong analcite
ἁλκυών halkuōn ἁλκυ- halku- kingfisher Alcyonaria, halcyon, Halcyon, halcyonidae
ἀλληγορῶ allēgorō ἀλληγορ- allēgor- I interpret allegorically allegory
ἄλληλον allēlon ἀλληλο- allēlo- of one another allelomorph, parallelogram
ἄλλος allos ἀλλο- allo-
other, different allochthon, allodium, allodontidae, allogenes, allograft, allography, allolactose, allometry, allomorph, allopath, allopatry, allophony, allopoiesis, allopurinol, allosaur, allotroph, allotropic, allotropy
ἅλς hals ἁλ- hal- salt
halogen, haloaromatic, halobacteria, halosaur
ἀλλότροπος allotropos ἀλλoτροπ- allotrop- strange allotropy, allotropes, allotropy,
ἁλύσκω haluskō ἁλυσκ- halluc- I flee from, shun, avoid, escape
alt. f. L. hallucinar, to dream, be deceived
hallucinosis, hallucinate
ἄλυσσος alyssos ἀλυσσ- alyss- a plant believed to cure rabies alyssum, Alyssa
ἄλφα alpha ἄλφα- alpha- alpha alphabet, alphabetize, alphagram, alphandia, alphanumeric, alpha particle
ἀλώπηξ alōpēx ἀλωπ- alop- fox alopecia
ἅλως halōs ἁλως- halo- round shape, the disk of the sun, circular arcade at Delphi halo
Ἀμαζών Amazōn Ἀμαζο- Amazo- female warriors Gk. Myth. Amazon, Amazonomachy, Amazonite, Amazonia
ἀμάλακτος amalaktos ἀμαλ- amal- that cannot be softened amalgam, amalgamation
Ἀμάλθεια Amalthēa ἀμάλθει- Amalthe- the foster-mother of Zeus Amalthea
Ἀμανίται amanitai ἀμανίτ- amanit- a kind of fungus amanita, amanitaceae
ἀμάρανθος amarantos ἀμαρανθ- amaranth- unfading flower amaranth, amaranthaceae, amaranthoideae
Ἀμαρυλλίς amarullis ἀμαρυλλ- amarull- name of a shepherdess Gk. Myth. amaryllis, amaryllidaceae
ἀμαύρωσις amaurōsis ἀμαυρω- amauro- blacken amaurosis, amaurobiidae
ἀμβλύς amblus ἀμβλυ- ambly- dim amblygonite, amblyopia, amblypoda
ἄμβροτος ambrotos ἀμβρο- ambro- immortal ambrosia, ambrotype
ἄμβυξ ambix ἀμβ- amb- cup alembic, alembication, alembicated
ἄμβων ambōn ἀμβω- ambo- raised edge ambo
ἀμέθυστος amethustos ἀμεθυστ- amethyst- not drunk or intoxicating amethyst, amethystizon
ἄμετρος ametros ἀμετρο- ametro- without measure ametropia
ἀμίαντος amiantos ἀμιαντ- amiant- undefiled amianthus
ἄμμος ammos ἀμμο- ammo- sand ammoperdix, ammophila, ammotrechidae
ἀμνησία amnēsia ἀμνησ- amnēs- oblivion amnesia
ἀμνηστία amnēstia ἀμνηστ- amnēst- forgetfulness, amnesty amnesty, amnestic
ἀμμωνιακός ammōniakos ἀμμονια- ammōnia- from Ammōn ammonia, ammoniacal
ἀμμωνίς ammōnis ἀμμων- ammon- horn of Ammōn ammonite, ammonoid, ammonoidea
ἀμνός amnos ἀμν- amn- lamb amnion, amniotic, amniocentesis, amnioscope,
ἀμοιβή amoebē ἀμοιβή- amoeb- change amoeba, amoebic
ἄμορφος amorphos ἄμορφ- amorph- shapeless amorphous, amorphic
ἄμυλον amylon ἄμυλ- amyl- starch amylin, amyloid, amylose, amylopectin, amylase, amyls, amylophagia, amyl
ἀμυγδαλή amugdalē ἀμυγδ-
almond tree amygdala, amygdalin, amygdule
ἀμφί amphi ἀμφι- amphi- on both sides amphipoda, amphioxus, amphiglossus
ἀμφιβάλλω amphiballō ἀμφιβ- amphib- throw on either side, to doubt amphibole, amphibology
ἀμφίβιος amphibios ἀμφιβι- amphibi- living a double life amphibious, amphibians
ἀμφίβολος amphibolos ἀμφιβολ- amphibol- doubtful amphibole, amphibolite
ἀμφίβραχυς amphibrakhus ἀμφιβραχ- amphibrach- short at both ends amphibrach, amphibolite
ἀμφιθέατρον amphitheatron ἀμφιθέατ- amphitheat- theater amphitheater, amphitheatre,
Ἀμφικτυονία Amphiktyonia ἀμφικτυονι- amphiktyoni- religious alliance Amphictyony, amphictyonic
ἀμφίμακρος amphimakros ἀμφιμακ- amphimac- long at both ends amphimacer
ἀμφορεύς amphoreus ἀμφορ- amphor- bearer amphora, ampulla
ἀμφότερος amphoteros ἀμφότερ- amphoter- each of two amphoteric
ἀνά ana ἀνα- ana- again, backward, upward anabolism, anachronism, anaplasia
ἀναβαίνω anabainō ἀναβα- anaba- I go up anabasis, anabatic, anabantidae
ἀναβαπτίζω anabaptizō ἀναβαπτ- anabapt- I dip repeatedly anabaptist
ἀναβιώνω anabiōnō ἀναβιω- anabio- I return to life -biosis,
ἀναβολή anabolē ἀναβολ- anabol- putting off, delaying anabolism, anabolic steroid
ἀνάγλυφος anagluphos ἀναγλυφ- anaglyp- putting wrought in low relief anaglyph
ἀναγραμματισμός anagrammatismos ἀναγραμ- anagram- transpose the letters of one word so as to form another anagram, anagram
ἀναγωγή anagōgē ἀναγωγ- anagog- spiritual uplift, reference to a principle anagoge, anagogy,
ἀνάδρομος anadromos ἀναδρομ- anadrom- running up anadromous
ἀναδῶ anadō ἀναδ- anad- bind up anadem
ἀναδίπλωσις anadipōlsis ἀναδιπλω- anadiplo- to redouble anadiplosis
ἀνάδρομος anadromos ἀναδρομ- anadrom- running up anadromous
ἀνάθεμα anathema ἀναθεματ- anathemat- accursed anathema, anathema,
ἀναισθησία anaisthēsia ἀναισθη- anaesthe- lack of sensation, insensibility under surgical treatment anaesthesia, anaesthesiologist, anaesthetic
ἀνάκλισις anaklisis ἀνακλι- anacli- to lean back anaclitism, anaclitic,
ἀνακολουθία anakolouthia ἀνακολουθ- anacolouth- inconsequence anacoluthon
ἀνάκρουσις anacrousis ἀνακρου- anacru- push back, beginning of a tune anacrusis
ἀναλγησία analgesia ἀναλγησ- analges- painlessnes analgesia, analgetic, analgesics
ἀναλέγω analegō ἀναλεγ- analeg- gather analects
ἀνάλειμμα analēmma ἀναλειμ- analem- support analemma
ἀναληπτικός analeptikos ἀναληπτ- analept- restorative analeptic
ἀνάλκιμος analkimos ἀναλκιμ- analcim- weak analcime, analcite
ἀναλογία analogia ἀναλογ- analog- proportion analogy
ἀναλογικός analogikos ἀναλογ- analog- based on mathematical ratios analog, analogue
ἀνάλογος analogos ἀναλογ- analog- proportionate, conformable analogous
ἀναλύω analuō ἀναλυ- analy- loosen, simplify analysis, analytical, analyze, analyst
ἀναλφάβητος analphabētos ἀναλφαβητ- analphabet- uneducated analphabetic, analphabetism
ἀνάμνησις anamnēsis ἀναμνησ- anamnes- recollection, reminiscence anamnesis, anamnesis,
ἀναμόρφωσις anamorphōsis ἀναμορφωσ- anamorphōs- transformation anamorphosis, anamorphic
ἂναξ anax ἀναξ- anax- lord, master, king anax
ἀνάπαιστος anapaistos ἀναπαιστ- anapaest- anapaestic verse anapest, anapestic
ἀνάπλαστος anaplastos ἀναπλαστ- anaplast- remolded anaplastic, anaplasia
ἀναπληρωτικός anaplērōtikos ἀναπληρωτικ- anaplerotic- filling up anaplerotic
ἀναπνοή anapnoē ἀναπνο- anapno- respiration, breathing anapnoic, anapnoic
ἀναπόδεικτος anapodeiktos ἀναπόδεικ- anapodeic- not proved anapodeictic
ἀνάπτυξις anaptuksis ἀνάπτυξ- anaptyx- expansion, explanation anaptyxis
ἄναρθρος anarthros ἀναρθρ- anarthr- not articulated anarthria, anarthrous
ἄναρχος anarkhos ἀναρχ- anarch- without a ruler anarchy, anarchism, anarchist
ἀναστομόω anastomōo ἀναστομo- anastomo- furnish with a mouth, open up anastomosis
ἀναστρέφω anastrephō ἀναστρεφ- anastreph- to turn back anastrophe
ἀνατείνω anateineinō ἀνατ- anat- I stretch anatase
ἀνατολή anatolē ἀνατολ- anatol- East Anatolia, Anatolian
ἀνατομία anatomia ἀνατομι- anatomi- dissection anatomy, anatomical, anatomist
ἀνατρέπω anatrepō ἀνατροπ- anatrop- to reverse anatropia, anatropia, anatropia
ἀναφέρω anapherō ἀναφoρ- anaphor- bring back anaphora
ἀναφυλάσσω anaphulassō ἀναφυλ- anaphyl- I guard anaphylaxis, anaphylactic, anaphylactoid
ἀναχρονισμός anachronismos ἀναχρον- anachron- wrong time reference anachronistic, anachronism
ἀναχωρω anachōrō ἀναχωρ- anachor- go back, retire anchorite, anchoress, anachoretic
Ἀνδρομέδα Andromēda Ἀνδρομέδ- Andromēd- wife of Perseus Andromeda, Andromeda polifolia
ἄνεμος anemos ἀνεμο- anemo- wind anemometer, anemoscopy, anemoscope, anemophilous
ἀνέκδοτος anekdotos ἀνεκδοτ- anecdot- unpublished anecdote, anecdotal, anecdotist
ἀνεμώνη anemonē ἀνεμών- anemone- lit. daughter of the wind anemone, sea-anemone
ἀνεπίγραφος anepigraphos ἀνεπίγραφ- anepigraph- without title or inscription anepigraphic
ἀνέργεια anergia ἀνεργ- anerg- cessation from work anergy
ἀνεύρισμα aneurusma ἀνεύρισμ- aneurysm- dilation aneurysm, microaneurysm
ἀνήρ anēr ἀνδρο-
man (male human) androcentrism, androgen, android, andrologist, andrology, androstephium, androsterone
misandry, -andry, polyandry
ἀνθολόγιον antholōgion ἀνθολoγ- antholog- collection of extracts anthology, anthologist
ἄνθος anthos ἀνθο- antho- flower anthology, anthophyta, anthostema, anthogonium, Anthozoa, anthocleista, anthotype, anthocyanin, anthocerotophyta
ἀνθρακίτις anthrakitēs ἀνθρακιτ- anthracit- kind of coal anthracite, anthracite iron
ἄνθραξ anthrax ἀνθρ- anthr- coal anthrax, anthracotherium, anthracosauria, anthracosis
ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos ἀνθρωπο- anthrōpo- human being anthropology, anthropomorphism, anthropopathy, anthropometrics, anthropomancy, anthropopath, anthropoglot,anthroponyms, anthroposophical, anthroponym, anthropomorphists, anthropocentrism, anthropomorphics, anthropoidea, anthroposemiotics, misanthrope, zoanthropy
ἀνιέναι anienai ἀνι- ani- to go up anion, anionic
ἄνισος anisos ἀνισο- aniso- unequal, dissimilar, uneven anisogamous, anisometric, anisometropia, anisotropic
ἂννησον annēson ἂννησ- anis- dill anise, aniseed, anisette
ἄνοδος anodos ἀνοδ- anod- way up anode, anodising
ἄνομος anomos ἀνομ- anom- lawless anomie, anomic
ἄνοργος anorgos ἀνoργ- anorg- not wrathful anorgasmy, anorgasmic, anorgasmia
ἀνορεξία anorexia ἀνορεκ- anorec- lack of appetite anorexia, anorectic, anorexigenic
ἄνορθος anorthos ἀνορθο- anortho- sloping anorthosite, anorthoclase, anorthite
ἀνταγωνίζεσθαι antagōnizesthai ἀνταγωνιζ- antagōniz- struggle against, prove a match for antagonize, antagonist, antagonism, antagonistic
ἀνταρκτικός antarktikos ἀνταρκτικ- antarctic- antarctic antarctic, antarctica,
ἀντί anti ἀντι- anti- opposite, counter antibiotic, anticyclone, antidiabetic, antihero, antihistamine, antioxidant, antiseptic, antistatic
ἀντίδοτον antidoton ἀντιδοτ- antidot- to give as a remedy against antidote, antidote
ἀντινομία antinomia ἀντινομ- antinom- contradiction between laws antinomy, antinomianism
ἀντιπάθεια antipatheia ἀντιπαθ- antipath- of opposite feelings antipathetic, antipathy
ἀντίπους antipous ἀντιποδ- antipod- the opposite foot, diametrically opposed antipodes, antipodean, antipodal
ἀντισήπω antisēpō ἀντισηπ- antisep- make to putrefy in turn antisepsis, antiseptic
ἀντίστροφος antistrophos ἀντιστροφ- antistroph- to invert antistrophe
ἀντιτιθέναι antitithenai ἀντιθ- antith- to oppose antithesis, antithetic, antithetical
ἀντιφράζω antiphrazō ἀντιφρα- antiphra- speak the opposite antiphrasis
ἀντίφωνος antiphōnos ἀντιφων- antiphon- sounding in answer antiphon, anthem
ἄντρον antron ἀντρ- antr- cave, cavity antrum
ἀντωνυμείν antōnymein ἀντωνυμ- antonym- to have an opposite denomination antonym, antonymous
ἄνυδρος anhudros ἀνυδρ- anhydr- waterless, arid anhydrite, anhydrous, anhydrobiosis
ἀνώδυνος anōdunos ἀνωδυν- anodyn- waterless, arid anodyne, anodyne
ἀνώμαλος anōmalos ἀνώμαλ- anōmal- uneven anomalocarid, anomalopidae, anomalopus, anomaluridae, anomaly, abnormal through Latin
ἀνώνυμος anōnumos ἀνωνυμ- anonym- nameless anonymity, Anonymous, anonymity, anonymously
ἀνωφελής anōphelēs ἀνωφελ- anophel- unprofitable, useless anopheles, anopheline, anophelorastia
ἄξιος axios ἀξιο- axio- worthy axiological, axiology, axiology, axiom, axiomatic, axiomatisation
ἄξων axōn ἀξο- axo-
axis axoneme, axoplasm, axisymmetric
ἀόριστος aoristos ἀοριστ- aorist- indefinite aorist
ἀορτή aortē ἀορτ- aort- the great artery aortic, aorta
ἀπαθές apathēs ἀπαθ- apath- without feeling apatheism, apatheist, apathetic, apathy
ἃπαξ hapax ἁπαξ- apax- once hapax legomenon, hapaxes
ἀπάτη apatē ἀπατ- apat- deceit apatite, apatosaurus
ἁπλούς haplous ἁπλο- haplo- single haplodiploid, haploid, haploidisation, haplorrhini, haplotype
ἀπό apo ἀπο- apo- away from apology, apostrophe, apocrypha
ἀπόγειον apogeion ἀπογει- apogei- far from the earth apogee
ἀποδεικτικός apodeiktikos ἀποδεικτ- apodict- demonstrable apodictic, apodictic
ἀποδιδώναι apodidōnai ἀποδ- apod- to give back apodosis
ἀπόθεμα apothema ἀπόθεμ- apothem- something laid down apothem
ἀποθέωσις apotheōsis ἀποθεω- apotheo- to deify apotheosis, apotheon
ἀποθήκη apothēkē ἀποθηκ- apothek- storehouse apothecary, apothecium
ἀποκαλύπτω apokaluptō ἀποκαλυπ- apocalyp- to reveal apocalypse
ἀποκόπτω apokoptō ἀποκoπ- apokop- cut off apocopation, apocope
ἀποκρίνω apokrinō ἀποκριν- apokrin- to set apart apocrine
ἀποκρύπτω apokruptō ἀποκρυπ- apokryp- to hide away apocrypha, apocryphal
Ἀπόλλων Appolōn ἀπόλλω- Apollō- name of a god Gk myth. Apollo, Apollonian
ἀπολογία apologia ἀπολογ- apolog- apology apology, apologue, apologetic, apologeticism, apologia
ἀπόμιξις apomixis ἀπομιξ- apomix- without mixing apomixis, apomictic
ἀπονευρούσθαι aponeurousthai ἀπονευρ- aponeur- to become tendinous aponeurosis
ἀποπλήσσω apoplēssō ἀποπληξ- apoplēx- cripple by a stroke apoplexy, apoplectic
ἄπορος aporos ἀπορ- apor- impassable aporia
ἀποστάτης apostatēs ἀποστατ- apostat- defector apostate, apostasy
ἀποστέλλω apostellō ἀποστολ- apostol- send away apostle, apostolic
ἀποστρέφω apostrephō ἀποστροφ- apostroph- turn away apostrophe, apostrophic, apostrophising
ἀποτρόπαιον apotropaion ἀποτρo- apotro- something that averts evil apotropaic, apotropaism
ἄπους apous ἀποδ- apod- without feet apodidae, apoda, apus, apodization
ἀποφάναι apophanai ἀποφα- apopha- to say no apophasis
ἀποφθέγεσται apophthengesthai ἀποφθεγ- apophtheg-
to speak plainly apothegm
ἀποφύομαι apophuomai ἀποφυ- apophu- grow out like a shoot apophysis, apophysomyces, zygapophysis
ἄπτερος apteros ἀπτερ- apter- wingless Apteryx, Apterygidae, Apterygota, Apteropanorpidae
ἀράχνη arakhnē ἀραχνη arachnē- spider arachnid
ἄργιλλος argillos ἀργιλλ- argill- clay argillite, argillaceous
Ἂρης Arēs ἀρεο- areo- planet Mars areo-, areocentric, areology, areography
ἀρκέω arkeō ἀρκ- ark- to ward off, to defend, to assist ἀρκέειν
alt. f. L. arceo "to enclose, keep out, prevent
arc, arcade
ἀρθρῖτις arthritis ἀρθριτ- arthrit- inflammation of joint arthritis, osteoarthritis
ἄρθρον arthron ἀρθρο- arthrο- joint arthropod, arthroscopy, arthropathy
ἄρθρωσις arthrōsis ἀρθρ- arthr- articulation dysarthria, diarthrosis, anarthrous
ἀριθμός arithmos ἀριθμ- arithm- number arithmetic, logarithm
ἄριστος aristos ἀριστο- aristo- best aristocracy
Αρκαδία arcadia Αρκαδ- arcad- area in Peloponnese, Greece, emblematic of rural peace Acadian
ἄρκτος arktos ἀρκτ- arct- bear, the northern constellation Ursa Major arctic
ἀρκτούρος arktouros ἀρκτουρ- arctur- bearward arcturus, arcturis, arcturian
ἁρμονία harmonia ἁρμονι- harmoni- agreement, harmony harmony, harmonium, harmonica, harmonisation, harmonics, enharmonic
ἁρμός harmos ἀρμ- arm- joint, shoulder harmotome, arm
ἀρρυθμία arrhuthmia ἀρρυθμ- arrythm- lack of rhythm arrhythmia, arrhythmic, antiarrhythmic
ἄρτιος artios ἀρτιο- artio- even artiodactyl
ἀρχαῖος arkhaios ἀρχαιο- archaio- ancient archaeology, archetype
ἀρχή arche ἀρχη- archi- chief, authority archaic, archbishop, anarchy, archidiptera, archigram, archipelago, architeuthidae
ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitektōn ἀρχιτεκτ- architect- chief builder architecture, architect
ἄρχων arkhōn ἀρχω- archo- ruler archon, archosaur, archostemata
ἄρωμα arōma ἀρωμα- aroma- spice aroma, aromatic compounds
-as -ας- suffix(-ad)- suffix Olympiad, Naiad
ἀσθένεια astheneia ἀσθεν- asthen- weakness asthenia, asthenopia
ἄσθμα asthma ἀσθμα- asthma- asthma asthmatic
Ἀσία Asia ἀσια- Asia- Mythological daughter of Iapetos Asia, Asian, Asianisation, asiaphile
ἀσπάραγος aspharagos ἀσπαραγ- asparag- asparagus asparagine acid, aspartame, aspartate
ἀσπίς aspis ἀσπ- asp- shield asp
ἀστήρ astēr ἀστερ- aster- star asteroid, asterisk
ἀστιγματισμός astigmatismos ἀστιγματ- astigmat- without focus astigmatism
ἀστράγαλος astragalos ἀστράγαλ- astragal- vertebra, knucklebone astragalus, astragal
ἄστρον astron ἀστρο- astro- constellation astronomy, astrology, astrophysics, astrodynamics, astronaut, astrolabe,
ἄσυλον asulon ἀσυλ- asyl- sanctuary asylum
ἀσφυξία asphuxia ἀσφυξ- asphyx- stopping of the pulse asphyxiant
ἀτμόσφαιρα atmosphaera ἀτμοσφαιρ- atmospher- vapor + sphere atmosphere, atmospheric
Ἂτλας Atlas ἀτλα- atla- name of a Titan atlas, Atlantic
ἄτομος atomos ἀτομ- atom- un + cut atomic, atomizer
ἀτονία atonia ἀτον- aton- slack atony, atonal
ἄτροπος atropos ἀτροπ- atrop- inexorable atropos, atropine, atropa
ἄτροφος atrophos ἀτροφ- atroph- ill-nourished atrophy
Ἀττική Attiki Ἀττικ- attic- A region of east-central Greece attic, atticism
αὐθεντικός authentikos αὐθεντικ- authentic- original authentication, authentic
αὐστηρός austēros αὐστηρ- auster- harsh, bitter austerity
αὐταρχία autarchia αὐταρχ- autarch- absolute governing autarchy, autarchism
αὐτάρκεια autarkia αὐτάρκ- autark- self-sufficiency autarky
αὐτόχθων autochthōn αὐτόχθ- autochth- of the land itshelf autochthon, autochthonic, autochthonous
αὐτοψία autopsia αὐτοψ- autops- a seeing for oneself autopsy
αὐξάνειν auxanein αὐξ- aux- to increase auxin, auxesis,
αὐτός autos αὐτο- auto- self (reflexive pronoun) autonomy, automatic
ἀφαιρείν aphairein ἀφαιρ- apher- take away apheresis, hemapheresis
ἀφανής aphanēs ἀφαν- aphan- unseen aphanes, aphaniotis, aphanite, aphanitic
ἄφατος aphatos ἀφασ- aphas- speechless aphasia, aphasiology, anomic aphasia
ἀφιέναι aphienai ἀφεσ- aphes- to let go aphesis, aphetic, aphetism
Ἀφροδίτη Aphroditē ἀφροδι- aphrodi- risen from sea-foam, name of a goddess aphrodisiac, aphrodisiac,
ἀχαίνειν akhainein ἀχαιν- achen- without yawning achene
ἀχάτης achātēs ἀχάτ- agat- a variety of mineral agate, agateware
ἀχρώματος akhrōmatos ἀχρωματ- achrοmat- without color achromatic, achromatin, achromatopsia, achromatism, achromatic
αψίνθιον apsinthion αψινθ- apsinth- alcoholic liqueur absinthe
ἁψίς hapsis ἁψ- aps- arch apse, apsis, apsidal, hassium, Diapsida


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
βάρβαρος barbaros βαρβαρο- barbaro- stranger, non-Greek barbarian
βαρύς barus βαρυ- baru- heavy baritone
βίος bios βιο- bio- life biology, biopsy,bios
βορέας boreas βορεα- borea- north, the north wind Aurora Borealis,hyperborean
βραχύς brachus βραχυ- brachu- short brachycephalic


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
γαῖα, γῆ gaia, gē γεα- gea- earth geology, Gaia, geometry, geography
γάμος gamos γαμ- gam- marriage polygamy, gamete
γέννησις genesis γέν- gen- to give birth, beget genetic, genesis, gene
γιγνῶσκειν gignōskein γνῶ- gnō-
to know diagnostic, agnostic
γίγας gigas γιγ- giga- huge, enormous Giga- (prefix) as in gigabyte, gigantic
γράφειν graphein γραφ- graph- to write graphics, geography, xerography
γυνή gunē γυναικ- gunaik- woman polygyny, gynecology, misogynist
γωνία gonia γων- gon- angle octagon, goniometer


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
δῆμος dēmos δημο- dēmo- district, its inhabitants, commoners democracy, demographic
δόξα doxa δοξ- dox- opinion, praise orthodox, paradox
δράσις drasis δρασ- dras- action drastic, anadrastic


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἐγκυκλοπαίδεια enkyklopaideia ἐγκυκλοπαιδ- encycloped- encyclopedia, lit. rounded education encyclopedia
εἰκών eikon εἰκών icon icon, picture, painting icon, iconicity, iconoclast
έλαιον elaeon έλαι- elae- oil vaseline
ελαστικός elastikos ελαστικ- elastik- elastic elastic, elasticity
ἕλιξ helix ἑλικ- helic- helix helix, helicopter, helicity
έργον ergon έργ erg- work zymurgy
επιστήμη episteme επιστημ epistem- good knowledge (science) epistemology
ἑρπετόν herpeton - creeping animal herpetology
ἑπτά hepta ἑπτα- hepta- seven heptarchy, heptagon, heptameter
ἔτυμον etymon ἔτυμον etymon true etymology
εὖ eu εύ- eu- well eulogy, Euphoria
εὖνομία eunomia εύ- eu- law eunomia, >- ευρύς eurys ευρ- eur- wide Europe
Ευρώπη europe ευρωπ- europ- she that has a wide vision Europe


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ζευγνύω zeugnyo ζευγν- zeugn- to yoke zeugma, zygote
ζέφυρος zephyros ζέφυρ- zephyr- west wind zephyr
ζήλος zēlos ζηλ- zel- zeal zeal, zealot
Ζηνοβία Zenovia Ζηνοβ- zenov- female name meaning 'the force of Zeus' Zenobia
ζητώ zēto ζητε- zete- search, inquire zetetic
ζύμη zymē ζύμ- zym- leaven zymurgy
ζώνη zōnē ζών- zōn- belt zone
ζῶον zōon ζωο- zōo- animal zoanthropy, zodiac, zoetrope, zoo, zoology


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἡγεμῶν hēgemōn ἡγεμον- hēgemon- leader hegemony
ήθος ēthos ήθ- ēth- moral ethics
ἥλιος hēlios ἡλιο- hēlio- sun helion, heliotropic, heliocentric
ἡμέρα hēmera ἡμέρ- hēmer- day ephemeral
ἠώς ēōs ἠο- ēo- dawn eocene


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
θεός theos θε- the- a god theology, theism, atheism
θεωρία theōria θεωρ- theor- theory theory
θερμός thermos θερμ- therm- hot isotherm, thermoelectric, Thermos (brand of vacuum flask))


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἰατρός iatros ἰατρο- iatro- physician, healer psychiatrist
ἴδιος idios ἰδι- idi- one’s own, private idiolect, idiom, idiot
ἱερός hieros ἱερο- hiero- sacred hierarchy, hieroglyph
ἰέναι ienai ἰόν- ion- go ion
ἱστορία historia ἱστορ- histor- history history
ἰχθύς ikhthus ἰχθυ- ikhthu- fish ikhthus, ichthyology


k, c

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
κακός kakos κακο- kako- bad cacophony
καλός kalos καλο-
beautiful calotype
καλύπτω kalypto καλυπτ-
I cover Calypso, apocalypse
κατά kata κατά- kat(a)- downwards, along catalog, catastrophe, category
κέντρον kentron κέντρ- kentr- centre centre, central, androcentrism, anthropocentrism
κιθάρα kithara κιθάρ- kithar- lute zither
κινεσθαι kinesthai κινεσις- kinesis- to move, motion psychokinesis, kinetic energy, kinesis
κλῶνος klōnos κακο- klōn- branch, twig clone, cloning
κήτος kētos κητο- kēto- sea monster, whale cetology
κουρά kurā κουρα- kurā- healing treatment cure
κόσμος kosmos κοσμ- kosm- order, the universe, jewell cosmography, cosmetic, cosmopolitan (πολίτης = citizen)
κράτος kratos κρατ- krat- power, rule autocrat, democracy, bureaucracy
κῦδος kūdos κυδ- kūd- glory, fame kudos


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
λαός lāos λαο- lāo- people laity
λέγω lego λεγ λογ- leg- log- to say epistemology, dialect
λέξις lexis λεξι- lexi- word dyslexia, lexicon, alexia
λευκός leukos λευκο- leuko- white leukocyte, leukemia
λίθος lithos λιθο- litho- stone lithography, neolithic
λόγος logos λογο- logo- thought, word theology, logic
λύω luō λυ-
I break, loosen lysis, electrolysis, analysis, Lysistrata


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
μαθηματικός mathēmatikos μαθηματικ- mathēmatik- fond of learning mathematics, mathematical
μακρός makros μακρο- makro- long macron, macrobiotic
μέγας megas μεγα-
big, large Mega- (prefix), as in megabyte, megafauna, megaphone,
megalomania, megalopolis
μέθοδος methodos μεθοδ- method- method method
μέλας melas μελαν- melan- pigmented, black, ink Melanesia, melanocyte, melancholy
μέταλλον metallon μεταλλ- metal- metal medal, metalloid
μετρώ metro μετρε- metre- to measure geometry
μηχανή mechan μηχαν- mechan- machine mechanics
μικρός mikros μικρο- mikro- small microscope
μῖσος mīsos μισ- mīs- hatred misandry, misogyny, misanthrope
μνῆστις mnēstis μνη- mne- memory amnesia, amnesty, mnemonic
μόνος monos μονο- mono- alone, solitary, forsaken monotony, monologue, monogamy, monocle, monolith, monotheist, monopsony, monopoly
Μοῦσα Mousa μουσ- mous- a patron goddess of the arts Muse, music, museum


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ναυτικός nautikos ναυτ- naut- sailor, ship nautical, astronaut
νάνος nanos νανο- nano- dwarf nanotechnology, nanometry
νέος neos νεο- neo- new, young neon, neologism
νίκη nike νίκ- nik- victory Berenice, varnish, Veronica


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ξανθός xanthos ξανθ- xanth- yellow Xanthippe, xanthus
ξένος xenos ξενο- xeno- strange, stranger, guest xenia, xenon, xenophobia, xenophobic
ξηρός xeros ξερο- xero- dry xerasia, xerography, xerophyte, xerophthalmia, xerox
ξίφος xiphos ξιφ- xiph- sword xiphias
ξύλον xulon ξυλ- xul- wood xylophone, xylem'
ξύω xyo ξυ- xy- scrape xyster


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ὀδούς odous ὀδοντ- odont- tooth orthodontia
οῒνος oinos οἰνο- oino- wine oenomel
οκτώ okto οκτ- okt- eight octagon
ὀλίγος oligos ὀλιγο- oligo- few, little oligarchy
ὅμος homos ὁμο- homo- equal, same homology, homogeneity
ὅμοιος homoios ὁμοιο- homoio- similar homeopathy
ὀξύς oxus ὀξυ- oxu- sharp, acid, sour oxygen
ὄργανον organon ὀργαν- organ- organ, instrument, tool organ, organism
ὀρθός orthos ὀρθ- orth- straight, correct, normal orthography, orthogonal
ορώ oro ορ- or- see Europe


p πάθος> pathos>
Citation form Root form Meaning
pathos παθ- path- suffering, disease pathology
παιδεία paideia παιδεια- paideia- education, culture encyclop(a)edia
παις pais παιδ- paid- boy, child paediatrician, pedophilia
πᾶς pas παν-, παντο- pan-, panto- all, complete pantheism, pantomime
πατήρ patēr πατρ- patr- father patriarch
πείρα peira πειρ- peir experience empirical
περί peri περι- peri around perimeter
πέτρα petra πέτρα- petra rock petrology
πόλις polis πολε- pole- city polis, political, police, polity
πόλος polοs πολ- pol- axis, sky North Pole, polarize, Polaris
πολύς polus πολυ- polu- many, much polygamy, polyglot, Polynesia, polyphony, polytechnic, polytonic
ποταμός potamos ποταμ- potam- river hippopotamus, Mesopotamia
πρόγραμμα programma προγραμματ- programmat- proclamation, agenda programmer, program


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ῥητορική rhetorica ῥητορ- rhetor- art of speech rhetoric
ῥεῦμα rheuma ῥευματ- rheumat- a flowing, rheum rheumatism, rheum
ῥοδον rhodon ῥοδο- rhodo- rose, red rhododendron, rhodium
ῥίς rhis ῥιν- rhin- nose Rhinoceros (genus), rhinoplasty


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
σάρξ sarx σαρκο- sarko- flesh sarcophagus,sarcasm
σαῦρος sauros σαυρο- sauro- lizard dinosaur
σκοπός skopos σκοπ- skop- observer telescope
σοφία sophia σοφια- sophia- knowledge, wisdom philosophy, sophistry
σύμβολο sumbolo συμβολ- sumbol- symbol symbol
σύστημα sustēma συστηματ- sustēmat- system system, systematic


(h)u, (h)y
Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ὕδωρ hudōr ὑδρο- hudro- water hydrodynamics, hydrolysis
ὕπέρ hyper ὑπέρ- hyper- super-, pro-, trans-, over- hyperactivity, hypersensitivity
ὕπνος hupnos ὑπνο- hupno- sleep hypnotism


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
φάγω phagō φαγε- phage- I eat bacteriophage,sarcophagus
φαίνομαι phainomai φαινο- phaino- I appear phenomenon
φέρω phero φερ- pher- bring Berenice, varnish, Veronica
Philadelphia, philosophy
zoophilia, pedophilia
irrational fear
phobia, Phobos
φύσις phusis φυσ- phus- nature physical, physics
φυτόν phuton φυτο- phuto- plant neophyte
φωνή phōnē φωνη- phōnē- voice phonetic, phonograph, phonology, telephone, vibraphone, xylophone
φῶς phōs φως-
light phosphorus
photography, photogenic


kh, ch
Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
χαίτη khaitē χαιτη- khaitē- loose, flowing hair polychaete
χάος khaos χαος- khaos- primal emptiness chaos, gas
χαρακτήρ kharakter χαρακτηρ- kharakter- character character, characteristic
χειρ kheir χειρ- kheir- hand Chiroptera, chiromancy, chiropractor
χορός khoros χορ[ε]ο- chor[e]o- dance choreography, chorus
χρίω khrio χρι- khri- anoint Christ, Christmas
χρόνος khronos χρον- khrono- time chronology, chronometer


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ψυχή psūkhē ψυχ- psūkh- spirit, soul psychology, psychedelic
ψυχρός psuchros ψυχρο- psuchro- cold psychrometer


Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ὠόν ōon ὠο- ōo- egg oocyte, oology
ὥρα hōra ὡρα- hōra- season, hour horoscope



H. G. Liddell and R. Scott, Greek-English lexicon, with a revised supplement. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996. ISBN 0-19-864226-1

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