Definitions

tumulus

tumulus

[too-myuh-luhs, tyoo-]
tumulus, plural tumuli, in archaeology, a heap of earth or stones placed over a grave. The terms mound, barrow, or cairn are more common in modern usage.

A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds, Hügelgrab or kurgans, and can be found throughout much of the world. A tumulus composed largely or entirely of stones is usually referred to as a cairn.

The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe and Maeshowe.

The word is Latin for 'mound' or 'small hill', from the PIE root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-, 'to bulge, swell' also found in tumor, thumb, thigh and thousand.

"Tumulus" can also refer to a formation caused by the uplift of lava on a pahoehoe flow field. The lava pushes up against the recently solidified surface creating tumuli along the surface.

Tumulus burial accounts

The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, and his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat. The barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles then sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, boxing, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing, archery and spear throwing.

Beowulf is taken to Hronesness, where he burned on a funeral pyre. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, the widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, and filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord.

Parallels have also been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games.

An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, and the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."

Types of barrows

Archaeologists often classify tumuli according to their location, form, and date of construction. See also mound. Some British types are listed below:

  • Bank barrow
  • Bell barrow
  • Bowl barrow
  • D-shaped barrow, round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side often defined by stone slabs
  • Fancy barrow, generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape.
  • Long barrow
  • Oval barrow, Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound.
  • Platform barrow, The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound, which may be surrounded by a ditch. They occur widely across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex.
  • Pond barrow, a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression. Bronze age
  • Ring barrow, a bank which encircles a number of burials.
  • Round barrow, a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and also the later Romans, Vikings, and Saxons. Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow. The Six Hills are a rare Roman example.
  • Saucer barrow, circular Bronze Age barrow featuring a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch which may be accompanied by an external bank.
  • Square barrow, burial site, usually of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, square, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may also have been covered by a mound

Excavation

Sites

Eastern Europe, Central Asia

The word kurgan is of Turkic origin borrowed from Russian language. In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv (excavated in the 19th century), Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, and vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Rurikovo gorodische. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians (e.g.,Chortomlyk, Pazyryk) and Proto-Indo-Europeans (e.g., Ipatovo) The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia naturally continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan.

Bulgaria

Hundreds of Thracian burial mounds are found throughout Bulgaria, including the Kazanlak and Sveshtari tombs, UNESCO World Heritage sites. Located near the ancient Thracian capital cities of Seuthopolis (of the Odrysian kingdom) and Daosdava or Helis (of the Getae), perhaps they represented royal burials. Other tombs contained offerings such as the Panagyurishte and Rogozen treasures.

Hungary

There are many tumuli in the Great Hungarian Plain, the highest is near of the settlement of Békésszentandrás, in Békés county. (see the picture of "Gödény-halom")

Western and Central Europe

Austria

Belgium

Britain

In Britain, early references to tumuli were made by William Camden, John Aubrey, and William Stukeley. During the 19th century in England the excavation of tumuli was a popular pastime amongst the educated and wealthy middle classes, who became known as "barrow-diggers". This leisure activity played a key role in laying the foundations for the scientific study of the past in Britain but also resulted in untold damage to the sites. Barrows were popularly used to bury the dead from the late Neolithic until the end of the Bronze Age, 2900-800BC. Square barrows were occasionally used in the Iron Age (800BC-43AD) in the east of England. The traditional round barrow experienced a brief resurgence after the Anglo-Saxon invasion, as Scandinavian burial practice became popular 500-600AD. These later barrows were often built near older Bronze Age barrows.

Czech Republic

During the early Middle Ages, Slavic tribesmen inhabiting what is now the Czech Republic used to bury their dead under barrows. This practice has been widespread in southern and eastern Bohemia and some neighboring regions, like Upper Austria and Lusatia, which at that time have been also populated with Slavic people. However, there are no known Slavic barrows in central part of the country (around Prague), neither they are found in Moravia. This has led some of the archaeologists to speculations about at least three distinct waves of Slavic settlers, which have colonized Czech lands separately from each other, each wave bringing its customs with it (including burial rituals).

At places where barrows have been constructed, they are usually found in groups (10 to 100 together), often forming several clearly distinct lines going from the west to the east. Only a few of them have been studied scientifically so far; in them, both burials by fire (with burnt ashes) and unburned skeletons have been found, even on the same site. It seems that builders of the barrows have at some time switched from burials by fire to burying of unburned corpses; however, the reason for such change is unknown. The barrows date too far back in history (700 AD to 800 AD) to contain any Christian influences - it is almost certain that all people buried in them were pagans.

As Czech barrows usually served for burials of poor villagers, only a few objects are found in them except for cheap pottery. Only one Slavic barrow is known to have contained gold.

Most of the Czech burial barrows have been damaged or destroyed by intense agriculture in the densely populated region. Those which remain are usually located in forests, especially at hilltops in remote places. Therefore there is no general knowledge about burial barrows in the Czech population.

The best Slavic barrow sites can be found near to Vitín, a small village close to České Budějovice. There are two groups of barrows close to Vitín, each containing about 80 barrows ordered in lines. Some of the barrows are as much as 2 meters high.

There are also some prehistoric burial barrows in Czech Republic, built by unknown people. Unlike Slavic barrows, they can be found all across the country, though they are scarce. Distinguishing them from Slavic ones is not an easy task for the unskilled eye.

Germany

Hügelgrab or Hügel-Grab (Engl.transl. hill grave) - sites in Germany
Name Place Region Bundesland Type Date Era
Auleben(Auleben grave-hill field) Auleben Nordhausen Thuringia Grave-hill field ca. 1500 - 1200 BCE Bronze Age, Young Stone Age
Benther Berg(Benther mound) Badenstedt Region Hannover Lower Saxony Hilly-grave ca. 1800 - 1100 BCE Nordic Old Bronze Age
Pöckinger Gemeindegebiet(Pöcking local community area) Pöcking Region München Bavaria grave-hill field ca. 750 - 500 BCE Hallstatt Age
Kreuzlinger Forst/Mühltal Gauting Region München Bavaria Hilly-grave ca. 2000 - 1500 BCE Bronze Age
Germanengrab (Itzehoe)(Germans Grave (Itzehoe)) Itzehoe Kreis Steinburg Schleswig-Holstein Hilly-grave ca. 1500 - 1300 BCE Bronze Age
Giesen (village) Giesen (village) Landkreis Hildesheim Lower Saxonia Hilly-grave ca. 1600 - 1200 BCE Bronze Age
Glauberg Glauburg Wetteraukreis Hesse Kings graves 5. Century BCE Early Celtic Age
Gräberhügelfeld von Bonstorf(Grave-hill field of Bonstorf) Bonstorf Landkreis Celle Lower Saxony grave-hill field ca. 1500 - 1200 BCE Bronze Age, Young Stone Age
Lahnberge Marburg Landkreis Marburg-Biedenkopf Hesse >200 Hilly-graves ca. 1600 - 5th Century BCE Middle Bronze Age (Hügelgräber Culture), Late Bronze Age (Urnfeld Culture), Iron Age (Hallstatt Culture)
Hohmichele Hundersingen Landkreis Sigmaringen Baden-Württemberg Kings graves ca. 600 - 450 BCE Hallstatt Age
Grave-hill of Hochdorf Hochdorf an der Enz Landkreis Ludwigsburg Baden-Württemberg Hilly-grave 5. Century BCE Hallstatt Age
Grabauer Gräberfeld(Grave fields) Grabau (Stormarn) Kreis Stormarn Schleswig-Holstein 9 grave-hills 6500 - 5500 BCE Young Stone Age
Beckdorf Beckdorf Landkreis Stade Lower Saxony Hilly-grave
Heidelberg Wiera Schwalm-Eder-Kreis Hesse Hill-grave Bronze Age
Lehbühl Schlaitdorf Landkreis Esslingen Baden-Württemberg Hill-grave ca. 600 - 400 BCE Hallstatt Age
Willhofer Berg (Wilhof mountain) Willhof Landkreis Schwandorf Bavaria Hilly-grave ca. 1516 BCE Middle Bronze Age, early La Tene Age
Mellingstedt Lemsahl-Mellingstedt Hamburg-Wandsbek Hamburg Hilly-grave Bronze Age
Daxberg Daxberg (Mömbris) Landkreis Aschaffenburg Bavaria Hilly-grave field ca. 2000 - 800 BCE Iron Age
Daxberg Daxberg (Erkheim) Landkreis Unterallgäu Bavaria Hilly-grave field 8. Century BCE Iron Age
Höltinghausen Höltinghausen Landkreis Cloppenburg Lower Saxony Hilly-grave field
Hohenfelde Hohenfelde (Mecklenburg) Landkreis Bad Doberan Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 7 Hilly-graves ca. 1700 BCE Bronze Age
Plankenheide Nettetal Kreis Viersen North Rhine-Westphalia Hill-grave
Kranzberger Forst Kranzberg Landkreis Freising Bavaria 19 Hilly-graves Bronze Age
Neu Quitzenow Neu Quitzenow Landkreis Güstrow Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2 Hilly-graves ca. 1800 - 600 BCE
Maaschwitz Maaschwitz Muldentalkreis Saxony Hilly-graves
Königsgrab von Seddin Seddin Landkreis Prignitz Brandenburg Kings graves 8. Century BCE Bronze Age
Pestruper Gräberfeld (Pestrup Grave fields) Wildeshausen Landkreis Oldenburg Lower Saxony ~ 500 grave-hills ca. 900 - 200 BCE Bronze Age
Plaggenschale Plaggenschale Landkreis Osnabrück Lower Saxony
Mansenberge Groß Berßen Landkreis Emsland Lower Saxony Great stone grave 2000 BCE Megalith Culture
Magdalenenberg Villingen Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis Baden-Württemberg Kings grave ca. 616 BCE Hallstatt Age
Tumulus von Nennig Nennig Landkreis Merzig-Wadern Saarland Grave-hill Bronze Age
Wagengrab von Bell (Wagon grave of Bell) Bell (Hunsrück) Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis Rhineland-Palatinate Wagon-grave 500 BCE Hallstatt Age
Winckelbarg Landkreis Stade Lower Saxony
Naturschutzgebiet Schweinert(Schweinert Nature reserve) Falkenberg Landkreis Elbe-Elster Brandenburg The Great Hill-Grave Field of Middle Europe (642 Hills) ca. 1000 BCE
Breitenfeld Neuhausen ob Eck Landkreis Tuttlingen Baden-Württemberg 21 grave-hills ca. 700 BCE - 450 CE Hallstatt Age

Ireland

A tumulus can be found close to the Grianán of Aileach in County Donegal. It has been suggested by historians such as George Petrie, who surveyed the site in the early nineteenth century, that the tumulus may predate the ringfort of Aileach by many centuries possibly to the neolithic age. Stones surrounded it which were laid horizontally and converged towards the centre. In Petrie’s time, the mound had been excavated but nothing to explain its meaning was discovered. It was subsequently destroyed but its former position is marked by a heap of broken stones. Similar mounds can be found at The Hill of Tara and there are several prominent tumuli at Brú na Bóinne in County Meath.

Italy

Some big tumulus tombs can be found especially in the Etruscan culture. Smaller barrows are dated to the Villanova period (9th - 8th century BC) but the biggest were used in the following centuries (from the 7th century afterwards) by the Etruscan aristocracy. The Etruscan tumuli were normally family tombs that were used for many generation of the same noble family, and the deceased were buried with many precious objects that had to be the "grave goods" or the furnishings for these "houses" in the Afterlife. Many tombs also hold paintings, that in many cases represent the funeral or scenes of real life. The most important graveyards (necropolises) with tumulus tombs are Veio, Cerveteri, Vetulonia, Populonia. Many isolated big barrows can be found in the whole Etruscan territory (mostly in Central Italy).

Portugal

One of the most dense manifestations of the megalithic phenomenon in Europe occurred in Portugal. In the north of Portugal there are more than 1000 late prehistoric barrows. They generally occur in clusters, forming a necropolis. The method of inhumation usually involves a dolmen. The tumulus, dated from c. 4450 to 1900 BC, are up to 3 meters high, with diameters from 6 to 30 meters. Most of them are mounds of earth and stones but the more recent ones are composed largely or entirely of stones (cairns). In Portugal, barrows are called mamoas, from the Latin mammulas, given to them by the Romans because of their shape, similar to the breast of a woman.

Scandinavia

Burial mounds were in use until the 11th century in Scandinavia and figure heavily into Norse paganism. In their undamaged state they appear as small, man-made hillocks, though many examples have been damaged by ploughing or deliberately damaged so that little visible evidence remains.

By burning the deceased, it was believed that the person was transferred to Valhalla by the consuming force of the fire. The fire could reach temperatures of 1500 °C. The remains were covered with cobblestones and then a layer of gravel and sand and finally a thin layer of turf.

As the old Scandinavians worshiped their ancestors, the mounds were also places of worship.

Of note is King Björn's barrow in Håga (Old Norse name: Haug) near Uppsala. This location has a very strong connection with Björn at Haugi. First, the Nordic Bronze Age barrow gave its name to the location Håga ("the barrow"), which became part of the cognomen of the king, at Haugi ("at the barrow"), and interestingly, the mound was later named after the king.

In Norse mythology, the draugr was an undead creature that haunted burial mounds.

Αegean and Near East

Macedonia

Some of the world's most prominent Tumuli, the Macedonian tombs and a cist-grave at Vergina, tomb of Philip II (359-336 B.C) of Macedonia and father of Alexander the Great (336-323). Speculation that the other grave found there is that of Alexander IV is controversial. His corpse was allegedly buried in Memphis during the turmoil of the Diadochi after his death in 323 BC.

Aigai is the ancient capital of Macedonia, homeland of Phillip II. During the 19th century, the tomb of Philip II was discovered in Vergina, northern Greece. The Monumental Palace is lavishly decorated with painted stuccoes and mosaics accompanying a burial ground with as many as 300 tumuli. Some tumuli date from the 11th century B.C. However, the most renowned is the royal tomb of Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, who manage to unite by force many Greek cities, architect of the Hellenistic expansion. This city lies on the northern slopes of the Pierian Mountains; Aigai has been identified as the capital of the Kingdom of Lower Macedonia. The site was inhabited continuously form the Bronze Age. By the 11th – 8th century BC it was a densely populated and rich centre. The 7th-6th centuries BC saw the premium point of its prosperity and popularity; this continued into the 5th century BC. Traditional sanctuaries were established, as were the seats of the Macedonian Kings. Royal tombs were known in antiquity to be opulent.

Excavations were first undertaken at this site by 19th century. Archaeologists L. Heuzy of France and K. Rhomaios of Greece began but were stalled by the First and Second World Wars and excavations were not resumed until approximately 1952. In the 1960s M. Andronicos was director of the excavations and the cemetery of the tumuli was investigated. The Palace of Philip II was excavated by a team from Thessaloniki University along with part of the necropolis being investigated by the Ministry of Culture. 1977 was the pivotal date that M. Andronicos brought to the attention of the world, the royal tombs in the Great Tumulus of Vergina, (ΜεγάΛα) tomb. Unfortunately, the townspeople of Vergina have put a halt to any more excavations for the time being, under the auspices of preserving their beautiful surroundings and heritage.

Anatolia

On the Anatolian peninsula, there are several sites where one can find the biggest specimens of these artificial mounds throughout the world. Three of these sites are especially important. Bin Tepeler (and other Lydian mounds of the Aegean inland), Phrygian mounds in Gordium (Central Anatolia), and the famous Commagene tumulus on the Mount Nemrut (Southeastern Anatolia).

This is the most important of the enumerated sites with the number of specimens it has and with the dimensions of certain among them. It is in the Aegean inland of Turkey. The site is called "Bin Tepeler" (a thousand mounds in Turkish) and it is in the northwest of Salihli district of Manisa province. The site is very close to the southern shoreline of Lake Marmara (Lake Gyges or Gygaea). Bin Tepeler is a Lydian necropolis which dates back to 7th and 6th centuries B.C. These mounds are called "the pyramids of Anatolia" as there is even a giant specimen among them which attains 355 meters in diameter, 1115 meters in perimeter and 69 meters of height. According to the accounts drawn up by Herodotus, this giant tumulus belongs to the famous Lydian King Alyattes II who ruled between 619–560 B.C. There is also another mound belonging to King Gyges. The Gyges mound was excavated but the burial chamber hasn't been found yet. In this site, there are 75 tumuli dating back to Lydian period which belong to the nobility. A large number of smaller artificial mounds can also be observed in the site. There are other Lydian tumuli sites around Eşme district of Uşak province. Certain mounds in these sites had been plundered by raiders in the late 1960s and the Lydian treasures found in their burial chambers had been smuggled to United States which later had to cede them to Turkish authorities after a series of negotiations. These artifacts are now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Uşak.

Gordium is the capital of the Phrygian Kingdom. Its ruins are in the immediate vicinity of Polatlı district of the Turkish capital Ankara. In this site, there are approximately 80-90 tumuli which date back to Phrygian, Persian and Hellenistic periods. Only 35 tumuli were excavated so far. The mounds had been built between 8th century B.C. and 3rd or 2nd century B.C. The biggest tumulus in the site is believed to belong to the famous Phrygian King Midas. This mound had been excavated in 1957 and several bronze artifacts were collected from the wooden burial chamber. Among these artifacts, "omphalos bowls" and famous "Phrygian fibulae" (hooked needles which were used by the Phryigians to bond the clothes they wore) are especially important.

The Mount Nemrut is 86 km in the east of Adıyaman province of Turkey. It is very close to Kahta district of the same province. The mountain has, at its peak, 3050 meters of height above the sea level. A tumulus which dates back to the 1st century B.C. is situated at the peak of the mountain. This artificial mound has 150 meters of diameter and a height of 50 meters which was originally 55 meters. It belongs to the Commagene King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene who ruled between 69–40 B.C. The most interesting thing about the tumulus is that it is made of broken stone pieces which renders the excavation attempts almost impossible. The tumulus is surrounded by ceremonial terraces in the east, west and north. The east and west terraces have tremendous statues (reaching 8 to 10 meters of height) and bas reliefs of gods and goddesses from the Commagene pantheon where divine figures used to embody the Persian and Roman perceptions together.

Levant

Near the western city limits of modern Jerusalem in Israel, 19 tumuli have been documented (Amiran, 1958). Though first noticed in the 1870s by early surveyors, the first one to be formally documented was Tumulus #2 in 1923 by William Foxwell Albright, and the most recent one (Tumulus #4) was excavated by Gabriel Barkay in 1983. Since 21 kings reigned in Jerusalem during the Israelite monarchy from David to Zedekiah (who was conquered and humiliated by the Chaldean king, Nebuchadnezzar), it is not unreasonable to suspect that these mounds were the locations of ceremonies to mourn/honor them after they had already received proper burial in the royal tombs (probably located in the heart of the city where they could be continuously guarded). See 2 Chronicles 16:14, 21:19 (which states that King Jehoram was not given this honor), 32:33, the book of Jeremiah 34:5 (a conditional promise for Zedekiah that he did not earn), and Biblical archaeology. Gabriel Barkay popularized this theory after studying tumuli near Salamis in Cyprus.

  • More than half of these ancient Israeli structures have now been threatened or obliterated by modern construction projects, including Tumulus #4, which was excavated hastily in a salvage operation. The most noteworthy finds from this dig were two LMLK seal impressions and two other handles with associated Concentric Circle incisions, all of which suggests this tumulus belonged to either King Hezekiah (Barkay, 2003, p. 68) or his son Manasseh (Grena, 2004, p. 326).
  • When comparing the number of these tumuli to the total number of Israelite kings (northern and southern), note that Saul never ruled in Jerusalem, and Athaliah was never crowned. She took the throne by force (2Kings 11:1-3), and would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony following her brutal assassination.
  • The northern kings did not reign over the southern kingdom, and they would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony in Jerusalem; if any ceremonies were held for them, they would have transpired in the north (near Bethel, Tirzah, or Samaria).
  • The association of these tumuli with the Judean kings who ruled Jerusalem does not substantiate Biblical history since it is mere speculation. No inscriptions naming any specific Judean king have been excavated from a tumulus.

East Asia

Japan

In Japan, powerful leaders built tumuli known as kofun. The Kofun period of Japanese history takes its name from these burial mounds. The largest is over 400 meters in length. In addition to other shapes, kofun include a keyhole shape.

Korea

The first burial mounds in Korea were dolmens which contained the material culture of the first millennium CE, such as bronze-ware, pottery, and other symbols of the elite of society.

The most famous tumulii in Korea, dating around 300 AD, are those left behind by the Korean Baekje, Goguryeo(Kogyuro/Koguryo), Silla, and Gaya states and are clustered around ancient capital cities in modern-day Pyongyang, Seoul, Ji'an, and Gwangju. The Goguryeo tombs, shaped like pyramids, are famous for the well-preserved wall murals like the ones at Anak Tomb No.3 which depict the culture and artistry of the people. The base of the tomb of King Gwanggaeto is 85 meters on each side, half of the size of the Great Pyramids. Goguryeo Silla tombs are most noted for the fabulous offerings that have been excavated such as delicate golden crowns and glassware and beads that probably made their way to Korea via the Silk Road.

Many indigenous Korean artifacts and culture were transmitted to the tomb builders of early Japan, such as horsetrappings, bronze mirrors, paintings and iron-ware.

North America

Human settlement in L'anse Amour dates back at least 7,500 years as evidenced by the burial mound of a Maritime Archaic boy here. His body was wrapped in a shroud of bark or hide and placed face down with his head pointed to the west. The site was first excavated in the 1970s.

The Augustine Mound is an important Mi'kmaq burial site in New Brunswick.

Mound building was a central feature of the public architecture of many Native American cultures from Chile to Minnesota. Thousands of mounds in the USA have been destroyed as a result of farming, pot-hunting, amateur and professional archaeology, road-building and construction. Surviving mounds are still found in river valleys, especially along the Mississippi, Tennessee and Ohio Rivers. Mounds were used for burial, to support residential and religious structures, to represent a shared cosmology, and to unite and demarcate community. Common forms include conical mounds, ridge-top mounds, platform mounds, and animal effigy mounds, but there are many variations. Mound building in the USA is believed to date back to at least 3400 BC in the Southeast (see Watson Brake). The Adena and Mississippian cultures are principally known for their mounds. The largest mound site north of Mexico is Cahokia, a vast World Heritage Site located just east of St. Louis, Missouri. The most visually impressive mound site (due to the area being free of trees) is in Moundville, Alabama. The largest conical burial mound can be found in Moundsville, West Virginia.

References

  • Knight, Peter, Ancient Stones of Dorset, 1996.
  • Albright, William F. (1923). "Interesting finds in tumuli near Jerusalem". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 10 (April): 1–3.
  • Amiran, Ruth (1958). "The tumuli west of Jerusalem, Survey and Excavations, 1953". Israel Exploration Journal 8 (4): 205–27.
  • Barkay, Gabriel (2003). "Mounds of mystery: where the kings of Judah were lamented". Biblical Archaeology Review 29 (3): 32–9, 66, 68.
  • Grena, G.M. (2004). LMLK--A Mystery Belonging to the King vol. 1. Redondo Beach, California: 4000 Years of Writing History. ISBN 0-9748786-0-X.
  • Grinsell, L.V., 1936, The Ancient Burial-mounds of England. London: Methuen.
  • Nelson, Sarah Milledge (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. New York: Cambridge University Press.:

See also

External links

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