Stone, Barton Warren, 1772-1844, American clergyman of Kentucky. With four other ministers he withdrew from the Presbyterian Church and in 1804 began to form new churches whose members called themselves simply Christians. Through his acquaintance with Alexander Campbell he sought to merge (1832) the Christians with the Disciples of Christ.

See C. C. Ware, Barton Warren Stone, Pathfinder of Christian Union (1932).

Stone, Edward Durell, 1902-78, American architect, b. Fayetteville, Ark. Stone's first major work, designed in the starkly functional International style in collaboration with Philip L. Goodwin, was the Museum of Modern Art, New York City (1937-39). Stone, whose style became more ornate and embellished in the 1950s, won renown for his design of the U.S. embassy at New Delhi (1958). In this building he introduced traditional Muslim motifs, including lacy grille patterns. Stone subsequently applied grillwork to many of his buildings, including the U.S. pavilion for the Brussels World's Fair (1958) and the Huntington Hartford Museum (1962; now the New York Cultural Center), New York City. Among his later works are the Amarillo Fine Arts Museum (1969); the Univ. of Alabama law school (1970); the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (1971), Washington D.C.; and the Community Hospital of Monterey Peninsula, Carmel, Calif.

See his autobiography (1962) and Recent and Future Architecture (1967).

Stone, Harlan Fiske, 1872-1946, American jurist, 12th Chief Justice of the United States (1941-46), b. Chesterfield, N.H. A graduate (1898) of Columbia Univ. law school, he was admitted (1899) to the bar, practiced law in New York City, and lectured at the Columbia law school, where he became professor (1902) and dean (1910). He resigned his deanship in 1923 and, as U.S. Attorney General (1924-25) under President Coolidge, helped to restore faith in the Dept. of Justice after the Teapot Dome scandals. Appointed (1925) Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, he established a reputation for his vigorous minority opinions, especially those in which he defended the social and economic welfare legislation of the New Deal against the conservative majority. Stone saw many of his minority opinions later accepted as majority decisions. He succeeded Charles Evans Hughes as Chief Justice. Public Control of Business (1940) is a selection of Stone's opinions as Associate Justice.

See biography by A. T. Mason (1956, repr. 1968) and study by S. J. Konefsky (1946, repr. 1971).

Stone, I. F., 1907-89, American journalist, b. Philadelphia as Isidor Feinstein. Raised in New Jersey, he moved to New York City shortly after beginning his career as a journalist. Later moving to Washington, D.C., he served as an editor of The Nation (1940-46) and subsequently worked on a series of daily newspapers. In 1953 he began his own journal, I. F. Stone's Weekly, which in 1967 became I. F. Stone's Bi-Weekly; it was published until 1971. In his writing, Stone concentrated on U.S. foreign policy, on the government's justification for that policy, and on the way America's mainstream press reported on these subjects. A determined opponent of the cold war and domestic loyalty measures in the 1950s, Stone was one of the most influential liberal journalists of the postwar period. Late in his life he wrote The Trial of Socrates (1989), a product of his study in his later years of classical Greek.

See K. Weber, ed., The Best of I. F. Stone (2006); A. Patner, I. F. Stone: A Portrait (1990); biographies by R. C. Cottrell (1992), M. MacPherson (2006), and D. D. Guttenplan (2009).

Stone, Lucy, 1818-93, reformer and leader in the women's rights movement, b. near West Brookfield, Mass., grad. Oberlin, 1847. In 1847 she gave her first lecture on women's rights, and the following year she was engaged by the Anti-Slavery Society as one of their regular lecturers. As a speaker she had great eloquence and was often able to sway an unruly and antagonistic audience. She married Henry Brown Blackwell in 1855 but continued, as a matter of principle, to use her own name and was known as Mrs. Stone. In 1870 she founded the Woman's Journal, which was for nearly 50 years the official organ of the American Woman Suffrage Association and, after 1890, the National American Woman Suffrage Association. After her death it was edited by her daughter, Alice Stone Blackwell. In 1921 the Lucy Stone League was formed to continue the battle for women's rights.

See biographies by her daughter (1930, repr. 1971) and E. R. Hays (1961).

Stone, Melville Elijah, 1848-1929, American journalist, b. Hudson, Ill. With others he founded in 1876 the first Chicago penny paper, the Daily News, and in 1881 the Morning News (later the Record). Stone became general manager of the reorganized Associated Press in 1893, and under his direction it became one of the great news agencies. He retired in 1921.

See his Fifty Years a Journalist (1921, repr. 1970).

Stone, Nicholas, 1586-1647, English sculptor and mason, b. Devonshire. He rose to a position of highest importance as a decorative sculptor, working after designs by Inigo Jones. His independent productions include the gate at St. Mary's, Oxford, and numerous tombs, such as that of the Viscount Dorchester, Westminster Abbey. His notebook and account book are preserved in the Soane Museum, London, and give much information about his trade. He also wrote a work on fortifications (1645).
Stone, Oliver, 1946-, American filmmaker, screenwriter, and producer, b. New York City, studied filmmaking with Martin Scorsese at New York Univ. (B.F.A., 1971). Stone enlisted (1967) in the army and saw combat in Vietnam, winning a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart. He adapted the screenplay for Midnight Express (1978; Academy Award) and created other scripts before directing his first Hollywood film, The Hand (1981). Stone won critical plaudits for Salvador (1986), but it was not until he wrote and directed the grimly realistic Vietnam War drama Platoon (1986; Academy Award, best director) that he catapulted to popular success. In his exploration of various uniquely American themes, Stone has become a controversial figure, frequently criticized for mingling fact and fiction in some films (e.g., JFK, 1991) and for portraying extreme violence in others (e.g., Natural Born Killers, 1994). His many other movies include Wall Street (1987), Born on the Fourth of July (1989; Academy Award, best director), The Doors (1991), Nixon (1995), World Trade Center (2006), and W. (2008, a dramatized portrait of George W. Bush).

See his Platoon and Salvador: The Screenplays (1987) and his autobiographical novel A Child's Night Dream (written 1966, pub. 1997); N. Kagan, The Cinema of Oliver Stone (1995); D. Kunz, ed., The Films of Oliver Stone (1997); C. Salewicz, Oliver Stone, Close Up (1998).

Stone, Robert, 1937-, American novelist, b. Brooklyn, N.Y. He was briefly (1971) a correspondent in Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) during the Vietnam War. His experiences there helped form the basis for his best-known novel, Dog Soldiers (1974, National Book Award), which was filmed as Who'll Stop the Rain (1978) with a screenplay by Stone. The book is an account of Vietnam-related drug smuggling, brutality, and disenchantment. Stone's philosophical bent, his vividly gritty style, and his edgy wit are evident in his portrayals of some of American life's darker aspects. His characters often fruitlessly attempt to deal with inescapable events, and the ghost of the Vietnam conflict hovers over much of his fiction. His other works include A Hall of Mirrors (1967), A Flag for Sunrise (1981), Children of Light (1986), Outerbridge Reach (1992), and Bear and His Daughter: Stories (1997). His acclaimed novel Damascus Gate (1998) is a probing story of religion-based conflicts in contemporary Jerusalem; it was followed by Bay of Souls (2003). Stone has won numerous awards, traveled widely, and taught at Princeton, Harvard, and other universities.

See his memoir (2007); studies by R. Solotaroff (1994) and G. Stephenson (2002).

Stone, Thomas, 1743-87, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Charles co., Md. A lawyer, he was (1775-78) a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he served on the committee that framed the Articles of Confederation. Later, he again served briefly in Congress.
stone, in weights and measures: see English units of measurement.
Stone may refer to:

Construction and building

  • Masonry, the building of structures from stone
  • Coade stone, a special form of vitreous stoneware, used for monumental work and architectural decoration
  • Standing stone, a solitary stone set vertically into the ground
for the types of stone used in sculpture and construction


  • Rock (geology), a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids, or an individual piece of rock
  • Marble, a metamorphic rock resulting from the metamorphism of limestone

a mixture of faded pastel colours reminiscent of mother of pearl(written by B.J.G)

Books and comics

Film and television


Places in England

Units of measure

  • Stone (mass), a unit of mass which since the latter half of the twentieth century has been equal to fourteen pounds
  • Stone (Chinese weight), a Chinese unit of weight equal to 120 piculs or 160 pounds

Other meanings

See also

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