2 Town (1990 pop. 17,076), Middlesex co., E Mass., a high-income suburb of Boston, on the Concord River; inc. 1635. Electronic, metal, and wood products are made there. The site of the Revolutionary battle of Concord on Apr. 19, 1775 (see Lexington and Concord, battles of), is marked by Daniel Chester French's bronze Minuteman. Concord has many old houses, some opened as memorials to noted occupants—Emerson, the Alcotts, Hawthorne, and Thoreau—who made the town an important intellectual and literary center (see transcendentalism) in the quarter century preceding the Civil War. An antiquarian museum and the Old Manse, built in 1769 by Emerson's grandfather and made famous by Hawthorne, and the place where Ephraim Bull developed the Concord grape are there. Walden Pond, the site of Thoreau's two-year sojourn in the woods, which is described in his Walden (1854), is in Walden Pond State Park.
See W. B. Maynard, Walden Pond: A History (2004).
3 City (1990 pop. 36,006), state capital and seat of Merrimack co., S central N.H., on the Merrimack River; settled 1725-27, inc. as Rumford, Mass., in 1733 (Count Rumford later took his title from this name) and as Concord, N.H., in 1765. Famous for its granite, the city also has printing, millworking, and insurance industries and plants making electronic, metal, dairy, and clay products. It became the state capital in 1808, and its growth was further aided by the building of the Middlesex Canal in 1815. St. Paul's school (preparatory) and the house of Franklin Pierce (a museum) are in Concord. Mary Baker Eddy was born a few miles away, at Bow.
4 City (1990 pop. 27,347), seat of Cabarrus co., central N.C., near the edge of the Piedmont; settled 1796, inc. 1837. In a livestock and grain producing area, it is also a cotton textile center. Other manufactures include plastics, building materials, paper and food products, and optical fibers. Gold discovered nearby in 1799 started the North Carolina gold rush. Concord is the seat of Barber-Scotia College. Lowe's (formerly Charlotte) Motor Speedway, a stock-car track, is there.
City (pop., 2000: 40,687), capital of New Hampshire, U.S. It lies along the Merrimack River above Manchester. Settled in 1727, the community was incorporated in 1733 by Massachusetts as Rumford but, following bitter litigation, was determined in 1762 to be within the jurisdiction of New Hampshire. Renamed Concord in 1765, it was made the capital in 1808. Printing, carriage making, and granite quarrying were important in its early development; Concord granite is still quarried.
Learn more about Concord with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Concord includes the villages of Penacook, East Concord and West Concord. The city is home to the Franklin Pierce Law Center, New Hampshire's only law school; St. Paul's School, a private preparatory school; New Hampshire Technical Institute, a two-year community college; and the Granite State Symphony Orchestra.
The land was originally settled thousands of years ago by Abenaki Native Americans called the Pennacook. The tribe fished for migrating salmon, sturgeon and alewives with nets strung across the rapids of the Merrimack River. The stream was also the transportation route for their birch bark canoes, which could travel from Lake Winnipesaukee to the Atlantic Ocean. The broad sweep of the Merrimack River valley floodplain provided good soil for farming beans, gourds, pumpkins, melons and maize.
On January 17, 1725, the Province of Massachusetts Bay, which then held jurisdiction over New Hampshire, granted it as the Plantation of Penacook. It was settled between 1725 and 1727 by Captain Ebenezer Eastman and others from Haverhill, Massachusetts. On February 9, 1734, the town was incorporated as Rumford, from which Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford would take his title. It was renamed Concord in 1765 by Governor Benning Wentworth following a bitter boundary dispute between Rumford and the town of Bow. Citizens displaced by the resulting border adjustment were given land elsewhere as compensation. In 1779, New Pennacook Plantation was granted to Timothy Walker, Jr. and his associates at what would be incorporated in 1800 as Rumford, Maine, the site of Pennacook Falls.
Concord grew in prominence throughout the 18th century, and some of its earliest houses survive at the northern end of Main Street. In the years following the Revolution, Concord's central geographical location made it a logical choice for the state capital, particularly after Samuel Blodget in 1807 opened a canal and lock system to allow vessels passage around the Amoskeag Falls downriver, connecting Concord with Boston by way of the Middlesex Canal. In 1808, Concord was named the official seat of state government, its 1819 State House the oldest capitol in which legislative branches meet in their original chambers. The city would become noted for furniture-making and granite quarrying. In 1828, Lewis Downing joined J. Stephens Abbot to form Abbot-Downing Coaches. Their most famous coach was the Concord Coach, modeled after the coronation coach of King George III. In the 19th century, Concord became a hub for the railroad industry, with Penacook a textile manufacturing center using water power from the Contoocook River. Today, the city is a center for health care and several insurance companies. It is also home to Concord Litho, one of the largest independently owned commercial printing companies in the country.
Concord is located at (43.2070, -71.5371).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of . of it is land and of it is water, comprising 4.78% of the city. Concord is drained by the Merrimack River. Penacook Lake is in the west. The highest point in Concord is above sea level on Oak Hill, just west of the hill's summit in neighboring Loudon.
Concord lies fully within the Merrimack River watershed, and is centered on the river, which runs from northwest to southeast through the city. Downtown is located on a low terrace to the west of the river, with residential neighborhoods climbing hills to the west and extending southwards towards the town of Bow. To the east of the Merrimack, atop a bluff, is a flat, sandy plain known as Concord Heights, which has seen most of the city's commercial development since 1960. The eastern boundary of Concord (with the town of Pembroke) is formed by the Soucook River, a tributary of the Merrimack. The Turkey River winds through the southwestern quarter of the city, passing through the campus of St. Paul's School before entering the Merrimack River in Bow. In the northern part of the city, the Contoocook River enters the Merrimack at the village of Penacook. Other village centers in the city include West Concord (actually north of downtown, on the west side of the Merrimack) and East Concord (also north of downtown, but on the east side of the Merrimack).
Interstate 89 and Interstate 93 are the two main Interstate highways serving Concord, and join just south of the city limits. Interstate 89 links Concord with Lebanon and the state of Vermont to the northwest, while Interstate 93 connects the city to Plymouth, Littleton, and the White Mountains to the north and Manchester to the south. Interstate 393 is a spur highway leading east from Concord and merging with U.S. Route 4 as a direct route to New Hampshire's seacoast. North-south U.S. Route 3 serves as Concord's Main Street, while U.S. Route 202 and New Hampshire Route 9 cross the city from east to west.
|Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures|
|Rec High °F (°C)||68 (20)||67 (19.4)||89 (31.6)||95 (35)||97 (36.1)||98 (36.6)||102 (38.8)||101 (38.3)||98 (36.6)||90 (32.2)||80 (26.6)||73 (22.7)|
|Norm High °F (°C)||30.6 (-0.7)||34.1 (1.2)||43.8 (6.5)||56.9 (13.8)||69.6 (20.8)||77.9 (25.5)||82.9 (28.3)||80.8 (27.1)||72.1 (22.3)||60.5 (15.8)||47.6 (8.6)||35.6 (2)|
|Norm Low °F (°C)||9.7 (-12.4)||12.6 (-10.7)||22.7 (-5.2)||32.2 (0.1)||42.4 (5.7)||51.8 (11)||57.1 (13.9)||55.6 (13.1)||46.6 (8.1)||35.1 (1.7)||27.6 (-2.4)||16.2 (-8.7)|
|Rec Low °F (°C)||-33 (-36.1)||-37 (-38.3)||-16 (-26.6)||8 (-13.3)||21 (-6.1)||30 (-1.1)||35 (1.6)||29 (-1.6)||21 (-6.1)||10 (-12.2)||-5 (-20.5)||-22 (-30)|
|Precip in (mm)||2.97 (75.4)||2.36 (59.9)||3.04 (77.2)||3.07 (78.0)||3.33 (84.6)||3.1 (78.7)||3.37 (85.6)||3.21 (81.5)||3.16 (80.3)||3.46 (87.9)||3.57 (90.7)||2.96 (75.2)|
As of the census of 2000 , there were 40,687 people, 16,281 households, and 9,622 families residing in the city. The population density was 632.9 people per square mile (244.4/km²). There were 16,881 housing units at an average density of 262.6/sq mi (101.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.52% White, 1.03% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.47% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, and 1.31% from two or more races. 1.45% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 16,281 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.9% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the city the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $42,447, and the median income for a family was $52,418. Males had a median income of $35,504 versus $27,348 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,976. About 6.2% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.3% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over.
New Hampshire Public Radio is headquartered in Concord.
Concord has many landmarks and other tourist attractions in it. Probably the largest is the New Hampshire State House, which was designed by architect Stuart Park and constructed between 1815 and 1818, is the oldest state house in which the legislature meets in its original chambers. The building was remodeled in 1866, and the third story and west wing were added in 1910.
Located directly across from the State House is the Eagle Hotel, which has been downtown landmark for nearly 150 years. Presidents Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford Hayes, and Benjamin Harrison all dined here, and Franklin Pierce spent the night here before departing for his inauguration. Other well-known guests included Jefferson Davis, Charles Lindbergh, Eleanor Roosevelt, Richard Nixon, and Thomas Dewey. The hotel closed its doors in 1961 .
South from there on Main Street is Phenix Hall, which is a building that replaced "Old" Phenix Hall (which burned in 1893). Both the old and new buildings featured multi-purpose auditoriums used for political speeches, theater productions, and fairs. Abraham Lincoln spoke at the old hall in 1860; Theodore Roosevelt spoke at the new hall in 1912.
North from there on Main Street is the Walker-Woodman House, which is the oldest standing house in Concord. It was built for the Rev. Timothy Walker on North Main Street between 1733 and 1735.
North from there on the north end of Main Street is the Pierce Manse, which is where President Franklin Pierce lived in Concord before and following his presidency. The mid-1830s Greek Revival house was moved from Montgomery Street to North Main Street in 1971 to prevent its demolition.
Other sites of interest include the New Hampshire Historical Society, which has two facilities in Concord, and the Christa McAuliffe Planetarium, which was named after the Concord teacher who died during the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986.
Concord has many different schools. Most of its public schools are run by the Concord School District, except for Merrimack Valley High School, which covers the Penacook area and several towns north of Concord. The only public high school in the Concord School District is Concord High School, which has about 2000 students. The only public middle school in the Concord School District is Rundlett Middle School, which has about 1500 students. Concord School District has many different elementary schools, the largest of which is Broken Ground Elementary School. Broken Ground serves grades three to five. Students heading into Broken Ground come from either Eastman Elementary School or Dame Elementary School. Other public elementary schools in the Concord School District include Beaver Meadow Elementary School and Conant Elementary School.