Ruth

Ruth

[rooth]
Simmons, Ruth, 1945-, American educator and college president, b. Grapeland, Tex., grad. Dillard Univ. (B.A., 1967) and Harvard (A.M., 1970; Ph.D., 1973). As a scholar she was primarily concerned with the francophone literature of Africa and the Caribbean. On the faculty and in the administration at Princeton from 1983 to 1990, she was associate dean of the faculty (1986-90). From 1990 to 1991, she was provost of Spelman College. She returned to Princeton in 1992, serving as vice provost. In 1995 she was named president of Smith College, becoming the first African-American woman to head a top-ranked college or university. While there she established the first women's college engineering program and founded Meridians, a journal addressing the concerns of minority women. Simmons left Smith in 2001 to become president of Brown Univ.
St. Denis, Ruth, 1877-1968, American dancer, b. Newark, N.J., whose name was originally Ruth Dennis. After her debut (c.1893) she toured with David Belasco. In 1906 she began her recitals of highly imaginative and spectacular dances inspired by the arts and religions of Egypt, India, and East Asia. She performed in Europe (1906-8) and in the United States (after 1909), exerting a widespread influence on modern dance. With Ted Shawn, whom she married in 1914, she founded the Denishawn Schools in Los Angeles and in New York City (1920). A divergence in their views after 1931 led her to found (1940) a separate school. Her dances include Radha, Incense, Cobras, and Nautch.

See her autobiography (1939). See study by S. Shelton (1981).

Ruth, Babe (George Herman Ruth), 1895-1948, American baseball player, considered by many the greatest of all baseball players, b. Baltimore.

Early Life

When he was seven years old his parents placed him in St. Mary's Industrial School (Baltimore), an institution for underprivileged boys. His days at St. Mary's were spent learning the tailor's trade and practicing baseball in his spare time. He began to play semiprofessional ball in Pennsylvania and was signed by the Baltimore Orioles (International League) in 1914. That same year he was sold as a pitcher to the Boston Red Sox of the American League.

Major-League Career

Ruth, a left hander, proved to be (1914-19) a formidable pitcher for the Red Sox and one of the most successful in major-league baseball, winning 87 and losing 44 games and winning three World Series games (one in 1916, two in 1918). However, because pitchers do not play in every game, in 1919 Ruth was shifted to the outfield, where his hitting prowess could be used consistently.

The following year he was sold to the New York Yankees of the American League, and because of his batting feats and attractive public personality he greatly helped to salvage baseball's popularity, weakened by revelations that gamblers and players, in the so-called Black Sox scandal, had successfully conspired to influence the results of the 1919 World Series. Ruth hit the most home runs per season for several years (1919-21, 1923-24, 1926-30), tied for the home run lead in 1918 and 1931, and set a record of 60 home runs in a 154-game season in 1927. (In 1961 Roger Maris hit 61 in a 162-game season, in 1998 Mark McGwire hit 70, and in 2001 Barry Bonds hit 73.) Ruth hit 714 home runs in major league play, a record that held until 1974, when Hank Aaron surpassed it. Ruth led the Yankees to seven pennants (1921-23, 1926-28, 1932), and Yankee Stadium, built in 1923, came to be known as "the house that Ruth built."

He was the highest-paid player of his era, but toward the end of his career he took several salary cuts before he was traded by the Yankees to the Boston Braves (National League) in 1935. He played with the Braves while serving as assistant manager but soon (June, 1935) was released.

Ruth was an unmistakable figure with his large frame and spindle-thin legs, and his talented and colorful play captured baseball fans' imagination. For example, in the third game of the 1932 World Series he appeared to indicate a spot in the stands of the Chicago Cubs' ball park where he would hit the ball and promptly blasted it there for a home run. Off the playing field "the Bambino," as he was affectionately called, made headlines for his charitable actions, such as visiting sick children in hospitals, as well as for his prodigious appetites and flamboyant lifestyle.

In 1936, Ruth became the second player to be elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame; Ty Cobb was the first. A year before he died he established and endowed the Babe Ruth Foundation to aid underprivileged youth. He wrote How to Play Baseball (1931).

See biography by L. Montville (2006).

Ruth, book of the Bible. It tells a story, set in the days of the judges, of the fidelity of a Moabite widow (Ruth) to her widowed mother-in-law (Naomi). After the death of her husband in Moab, Ruth returns with Naomi to Bethlehem. There Ruth marries Naomi's kinsman, Boaz. Boaz and Ruth were ancestors of David. This idyll is one of the most popular of scriptural stories. Dates before and after the 6th-century exile have been suggested, but it was probably composed between 450 B.C. and 300 B.C.

See studies by E. F. Campbell (1975); D. Atkinson (1983); and R. Hubbard Jr. (1988). See also bibliography under Old Testament.

Crawford, Ruth, 1901-53, American composer, b. East Liverpool, Ohio. Crawford attended music schools in Jacksonville, Fla., and Chicago. Her most frequently performed composition is a string quartet (1931). She also collected and published American folk music with her husband, the musicologist and composer Charles Seeger, father of the folk singer Pete Seeger.
Gordon, Ruth, 1896-1985, American actress and playwright, b. Wollaston, Mass. From her debut as Nibs in Peter Pan (1915), Gordon's career encompassed broad stage and film experience. Among the plays she wrote are Over Twenty-One, Years Ago, and The Leading Lady. She and her husband, the playwright and director Garson Kanin, collaborated on many successful screenplays, including A Double Life (1948), Adam's Rib (1949), and Pat and Mike (1952). Gordon won an Academy Award for her performance in Rosemary's Baby (1968). In 1971, she starred in the black comedy classic Harold and Maude. In 1974 she appeared in the play Dreyfus in Rehearsal.

See her autobiography, Myself Among Others (1971).

Draper, Ruth, 1884-1956, American monologist, b. New York City. The author of 36 monologues, ranging from farce to tragedy, she played the various characters within each sketch with only a change of costume and props. Her delicate and sophisticated art gained her worldwide acclaim.
orig. Ruth Dennis

(born Jan. 20, 1877, Newark, N.J., U.S.—died July 21, 1968, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. modern-dance innovator and teacher. She was a vaudeville performer before developing her dramatic dance act based on Asian dance forms. From 1906 to 1909 she toured in Europe to wide acclaim. In 1915 she and her husband, Ted Shawn, established the Denishawn dance company and school to present a new choreographic style of abstract “music visualization.” The company frequently toured until it disbanded in 1931 when St. Denis and Shawn separated. Her interest in the use of dance in religion led her to found the Society of Spiritual Arts. She continued to perform, teach, and lecture into the 1960s.

Learn more about St. Denis, Ruth with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. George Herman Ruth

Babe Ruth.

(born Feb. 6, 1895, Baltimore, Md., U.S.—died Aug. 16, 1948, New York, N.Y.) U.S. baseball player, one of the greatest hitters and most popular figures in the sport's history. He began his career in 1914 as a member of Baltimore's minor league team and joined the Boston Red Sox later that season. He started as a pitcher, compiling an outstanding record (94 wins, 46 losses), but switched to the outfield because of his powerful hitting. Sold to the New York Yankees in 1920, he remained with the team until 1934; he played his last year with the Boston Braves (1935). He coached the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1938, but his reputation for irresponsibility prevented his obtaining a permanent coaching or manager's job. His prodigious slugging earned him the nickname “Sultan of Swat.” In 1927 he set the most famous of all baseball records when he hit 60 home runs in a single season, a mark that stood until 1961, when broken by Roger Maris. Ruth hit at least 50 home runs in four separate seasons and at least 40 in each of 11 seasons. His career slugging percentage (.690) remains an all-time record; he ranks second in career home runs (714, behind Hank Aaron), second in runs batted in (2,213, again behind Aaron), and third in runs (2,174, behind Rickey Henderson and Ty Cobb and tied with Aaron).

Learn more about Ruth, Babe with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Ruth Dennis

(born Jan. 20, 1877, Newark, N.J., U.S.—died July 21, 1968, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. modern-dance innovator and teacher. She was a vaudeville performer before developing her dramatic dance act based on Asian dance forms. From 1906 to 1909 she toured in Europe to wide acclaim. In 1915 she and her husband, Ted Shawn, established the Denishawn dance company and school to present a new choreographic style of abstract “music visualization.” The company frequently toured until it disbanded in 1931 when St. Denis and Shawn separated. Her interest in the use of dance in religion led her to found the Society of Spiritual Arts. She continued to perform, teach, and lecture into the 1960s.

Learn more about St. Denis, Ruth with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 2, 1884, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 30, 1956, New York City) U.S. monologist. She began her career by writing dramatic sketches about people she had observed and performing them at parties. She made her New York debut (1917) in a series of one-act pieces. Her London debut (1920) established her as a master monologist. She performed worldwide, playing on a bare stage with few props and creating characters and settings by subtle modulation of feature, gesture, and voice.

Learn more about Draper, Ruth with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 2, 1884, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 30, 1956, New York City) U.S. monologist. She began her career by writing dramatic sketches about people she had observed and performing them at parties. She made her New York debut (1917) in a series of one-act pieces. Her London debut (1920) established her as a master monologist. She performed worldwide, playing on a bare stage with few props and creating characters and settings by subtle modulation of feature, gesture, and voice.

Learn more about Draper, Ruth with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. George Herman Ruth

Babe Ruth.

(born Feb. 6, 1895, Baltimore, Md., U.S.—died Aug. 16, 1948, New York, N.Y.) U.S. baseball player, one of the greatest hitters and most popular figures in the sport's history. He began his career in 1914 as a member of Baltimore's minor league team and joined the Boston Red Sox later that season. He started as a pitcher, compiling an outstanding record (94 wins, 46 losses), but switched to the outfield because of his powerful hitting. Sold to the New York Yankees in 1920, he remained with the team until 1934; he played his last year with the Boston Braves (1935). He coached the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1938, but his reputation for irresponsibility prevented his obtaining a permanent coaching or manager's job. His prodigious slugging earned him the nickname “Sultan of Swat.” In 1927 he set the most famous of all baseball records when he hit 60 home runs in a single season, a mark that stood until 1961, when broken by Roger Maris. Ruth hit at least 50 home runs in four separate seasons and at least 40 in each of 11 seasons. His career slugging percentage (.690) remains an all-time record; he ranks second in career home runs (714, behind Hank Aaron), second in runs batted in (2,213, again behind Aaron), and third in runs (2,174, behind Rickey Henderson and Ty Cobb and tied with Aaron).

Learn more about Ruth, Babe with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Ruth (Hebrew: רוּת) is a common female given name, from Ruth the Moabite in the Book of Ruth, from the Hebrew for "compassion". Ruth can also refer to:

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