Newman

Newman

[noo-muhn, nyoo-]
Newman, Arnold Abner, 1918-2006, American portrait photographer, b. New York City. He is known for his "environmental portraiture," photographs that capture their sitters in characteristic settings, often with objects emblematic of their lives. He opened his own studio in Miami Beach in 1942, moving to New York City in 1946. That year he made one his famous study of Igor Stravinsky, a photograph dominated by the curving black lid of the composer's grand piano. Often working for Harper's Bazaar, Look, and above all Life, Newman created compelling portraits those who defined his era, among them Pablo Picasso, Marilyn Monroe, Mickey Mantle, Afred Krupp, John F. Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan. His work is featured in several books, including Artists: Portraits from Four Decades (1980), Arnold Newman's Americans (1992), and Arnold Newman (2000).
Newman, Barnett, 1905-70, American artist, b. New York City. A member of the New York school, Newman was one of the first to reject conventional notions of spatial composition in art. Often using monumental scale, he took abstraction to its farther reaches. In his severe Stations of the Cross series (1958-66), he divided raw canvas vertically at intervals by black or white bands of various widths. In other paintings (e.g., Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue IV?, 1969-70) Newman used large areas of saturated, sometimes primary color punctuated by narrow vertical bands of other colors that he called "zips" as the source of visual and emotional impact. Newman became known as a major painter in the last decade of his life, and his work was an important influence on the practitioners of color-field painting. He also created a number of monumental abstract sculptures.

See study by T. B. Hess (1971).

Newman, Ernest, 1868-1959, English music critic. He joined the staff of the Manchester Guardian in 1905, the Birmingham Daily Post in 1906, the London Observer in 1919, and The Times of London in 1920. Outstanding among his writings is his Life of Richard Wagner (4 vol., 1933-46, repr. 1976). He translated Albert Schweitzer's J. S. Bach and Romain Rolland's Beethoven the Creator and wrote many important books on music.
Newman, John Henry, 1801-90, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the founders of the Oxford movement, b. London.

Early Life and Works

He studied at Trinity College, Oxford, and held a fellowship at Oriel College, where he became tutor (1826) after his ordination (1824) in the Church of England. He was made vicar of St. Mary's, Oxford, in 1827 and was (1831-32) select preacher to the university. In 1832 he resigned his tutorship after a dispute over his religious duties and went on a Mediterranean tour. While on this trip he wrote "Lead, Kindly Light" and other hymns. After John Keble preached the celebrated sermon "National Apostasy" in the summer of 1833, Newman threw himself into the ensuing discussion and in September began the Tracts for the Times. These, joined with his sermons given at St. Mary's, provided guidance and inspiration to the Oxford movement.

About 1840, Newman began to lose faith in his position, and an article by Nicholas Wiseman led him to reconsider the Roman Catholic claims. In 1841 his Anglican career came to a crisis; in that year Newman published Tract 90, demonstrating that the Thirty-nine Articles, the formulary of faith of the Church of England, were consistent with Catholicism. It created a great outcry from Anglicans everywhere and a ban on the Tracts for the Times from the bishop of Oxford. Newman now went into retirement at Littlemore (a chapelry attached to St. Mary's), where he remained for more than a year, living with a group of men in a sort of monastic seclusion. He gave up his living in Sept., 1843, and in 1845 was received into the Roman Catholic Church.

The chief literary products of Newman's retirement consisted of the Essay on Miracles and the Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine. In 1846 he went to Rome, where he received ordination and a doctorate of divinity. He entered the Oratorians (see Oratory, Congregation of the) and came back to England (1847) filled with the idea of extending the church in England by means of the Oratory. After living at various places he settled at Edgbaston (on the outskirts of Birmingham); there, in the Oratory he founded, he remained the rest of his life.

Newman's life was marked by several unpleasant public events, the first of these being a libel suit against him by an Italian ex-friar named Achilli. Newman lost the suit, but was later exonerated, and a great fund was publicly raised to defray the expense and the fine he had incurred. In 1854 the bishops of Ireland tried to found a Catholic university in Dublin and made Newman its head; he found himself in difficulties at once, and the ill-planned project was abandoned.

Later Life and Works

Newman's theories appearing in his Idea of a University Defined (1873) were chiefly developed about this time. He believed that education should be moral training rather than instruction and proposed in token support of his position the founding of a Roman Catholic hall at Oxford to provide Catholics with the advantages of Catholicism and university training together. This (1858) was opposed by Henry Manning and the English hierarchy, much to Newman's disappointment. Newman's reputation in England was greatly enhanced soon after this by one of the most celebrated incidents of his career, the controversy with Charles Kingsley. This began in 1864 when Kingsley remarked in a review that the Catholic clergy was not interested in the truth for its own sake. After several exchanges Newman published the Apologia pro vita sua (1864), a masterpiece of religious autobiography, undoubtedly its author's greatest work.

A few years later an ambitious work of another kind appeared, the Grammar of Assent (1870), designed to set forth a sort of logic of religious belief. At this time Newman was involved in an annoying incident that gained more notice than its importance warranted; Newman, who opposed the enunciation at the time of the infallibility dogma, was quoted as denouncing those (including Cardinal Manning) who advocated its definition. He was misunderstood in England, and his enemies (Catholic and non-Catholic) spread rumors in Rome that he opposed the dogma itself; Newman soon lost favor with the papacy.

It was not until after the death of Pius IX that he regained papal support when Pius's successor, Leo XIII, created him cardinal (1879) at the general demand of English Catholicism. About the same time (1878) Trinity College, Oxford, gave him an honorary fellowship. Cardinal Newman spent his declining years at Edgbaston, loved and admired by his countrymen. Newman's misunderstanding with Manning nevertheless lasted over 30 years. The two cardinals were temperamentally poles apart; Newman had no interest in social reform and Manning no taste for theological controversy.

Style and Influence

Newman ranks as one of the masters of English prose; his style is simple, lucid, clear, and convincing. His poems, however, never gained a great reputation, except for The Dream of Gerontius (1866), which was later set to music by Sir Edward Elgar; his religious novels, Loss and Gain (1848) and Callista (1856), are no longer read. For the collected editions of his works, Newman wrote refutations of his own Anglican writings, especially those dealing with Anglicanism as a via media. Newman's immediate influence was greatest c.1840, and many Anglicans entered the Roman Catholic Church at his inspiration. His essays retain their vitality and popularity.

Bibliography

For selections from Newman's writings, see G. Tillotson, ed., Prose and Poetry (1957); H. Tristram, ed., Autobiographical Writings (1957) and Catholic Sermons (1957); J. Collins, ed., Philosophical Readings (1961). The definitive biography is that of W. P. Ward (1927). See also biographies by M. Trevor (2 vol., 1962-63), and T. L. Sheridan (1967); studies by J. H. Walgrave (tr. 1960), C. F. Harrold (1945, repr. 1966), and H. L. Weatherby (1973).

Newman, Paul, 1925-2008, American actor, b. Cleveland, Ohio. After performing in a Broadway play (1952-53) and in television dramas, Newman became a versatile film actor and a major Hollywood star. He made his movie debut in 1954 and achieved leading man status with his role in Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956). His enduring characterization is of a handsome, insolent, and self-reliant renegade antihero with a penchant for wry humor, as seen in The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), and The Sting (1973). He won a best-actor Academy Award for The Color of Money (1986) after eight nominations. Later examples of his more than 65 films include Blaze (1988), Mr. and Mrs. Bridge (1990), Nobody's Fool (1994), and Road to Perdition (2002), his last screen role. Newman also directed several movies, e.g., Rachel, Rachel (1968), usually showcases for his wife and frequent costar, Joanne Woodward. Newman was also was a successful racecar driver, a food-products entrepeneur, and a philanthropist.

See biographies by J. Epstein and E. Z. Morella (1988) and E. Lax (1996).

(born Jan. 26, 1925, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. film actor. He studied drama at Yale University and the Actors Studio and first appeared on Broadway in Picnic (1953). In 1954 he made his screen debut in the disastrous biblical epic The Silver Chalice. He won favourable notice in Somebody up There Likes Me (1956) and The Long Hot Summer (1958). In many of his best-remembered roles, he captured the darker, less heroic aspects of a character's nature, as in such successful films as The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), The Color of Money (1986; Academy Award), and Nobody's Fool (1994). He directed and produced films such as Rachel, Rachel (1968) and The Glass Menagerie (1987), both of which starred his wife, Joanne Woodward. In 1982 he launched the successful “Newman's Own” line of food products, with its profits going to a number of charitable causes.

Learn more about Newman, Paul with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 26, 1925, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. film actor. He studied drama at Yale University and the Actors Studio and first appeared on Broadway in Picnic (1953). In 1954 he made his screen debut in the disastrous biblical epic The Silver Chalice. He won favourable notice in Somebody up There Likes Me (1956) and The Long Hot Summer (1958). In many of his best-remembered roles, he captured the darker, less heroic aspects of a character's nature, as in such successful films as The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), The Color of Money (1986; Academy Award), and Nobody's Fool (1994). He directed and produced films such as Rachel, Rachel (1968) and The Glass Menagerie (1987), both of which starred his wife, Joanne Woodward. In 1982 he launched the successful “Newman's Own” line of food products, with its profits going to a number of charitable causes.

Learn more about Newman, Paul with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Cardinal Newman

(born Feb. 21, 1801, London, Eng.—died Aug. 11, 1890, Birmingham, Warwick) English churchman and man of letters. He attended the University of Oxford, where in 1833 he became the leader of the Oxford Movement, which stressed the Catholic elements in the English religious tradition and sought to reform the Church of England. He was received into the Roman Catholic church in 1845, but he came under suspicion among the more rigorous clergy because of his quasi-liberal spirit. A challenge from Charles Kingsley prompted him to write an eloquent exposition of his spiritual history, the widely admired Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864). The work assured his place in the church, and in 1879 he became a cardinal-deacon. He also wrote theological works, religious poetry, and several hymns, including “Lead, Kindly Light.”

Learn more about Newman, John Henry with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Baruch Newman

(born Jan. 29, 1905, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died July 3, 1970, New York City) U.S. painter. Born to Polish immigrant parents, he studied at the Art Students League and City College. With Robert Motherwell and Mark Rothko, he cofounded the school called “Subject of the Artist” (1948), which held open sessions and lectures for other artists. He developed a style of mystical abstraction and achieved his breakthrough with Onement I (1948), in which a single stripe (or “zip”) of orange vertically bisects a field of dark red. This austerely geometric style became his trademark and had a great influence on artists such as Ad Reinhardt and Frank Stella.

Learn more about Newman, Barnett with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 3, 1918, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died June 6, 2006, New York) U.S. photographer. He studied art at the University of Miami, then worked in the photography studio of a Miami department store. In 1946 he opened his own studio in New York City, where he specialized in portraits of well-known people posed in settings associated with their work. His “environmental portraiture” greatly influenced 20th-century portrait photography. His best-known portraits include those of Max Ernst, Alfred Stieglitz, Georgia O'Keeffe, Igor Stravinsky, Pablo Picasso, and Jean Cocteau.

Learn more about Newman, Arnold (Abner) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Cardinal Newman

(born Feb. 21, 1801, London, Eng.—died Aug. 11, 1890, Birmingham, Warwick) English churchman and man of letters. He attended the University of Oxford, where in 1833 he became the leader of the Oxford Movement, which stressed the Catholic elements in the English religious tradition and sought to reform the Church of England. He was received into the Roman Catholic church in 1845, but he came under suspicion among the more rigorous clergy because of his quasi-liberal spirit. A challenge from Charles Kingsley prompted him to write an eloquent exposition of his spiritual history, the widely admired Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864). The work assured his place in the church, and in 1879 he became a cardinal-deacon. He also wrote theological works, religious poetry, and several hymns, including “Lead, Kindly Light.”

Learn more about Newman, John Henry with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Baruch Newman

(born Jan. 29, 1905, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died July 3, 1970, New York City) U.S. painter. Born to Polish immigrant parents, he studied at the Art Students League and City College. With Robert Motherwell and Mark Rothko, he cofounded the school called “Subject of the Artist” (1948), which held open sessions and lectures for other artists. He developed a style of mystical abstraction and achieved his breakthrough with Onement I (1948), in which a single stripe (or “zip”) of orange vertically bisects a field of dark red. This austerely geometric style became his trademark and had a great influence on artists such as Ad Reinhardt and Frank Stella.

Learn more about Newman, Barnett with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 3, 1918, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died June 6, 2006, New York) U.S. photographer. He studied art at the University of Miami, then worked in the photography studio of a Miami department store. In 1946 he opened his own studio in New York City, where he specialized in portraits of well-known people posed in settings associated with their work. His “environmental portraiture” greatly influenced 20th-century portrait photography. His best-known portraits include those of Max Ernst, Alfred Stieglitz, Georgia O'Keeffe, Igor Stravinsky, Pablo Picasso, and Jean Cocteau.

Learn more about Newman, Arnold (Abner) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Newman is a city in Stanislaus County, California, United States. The population was 7,093 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Newman is located at (37.315038, -121.022476) According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.4 square miles (3.5 km²), all of it land. Newman currently has over 10,000 people. Newman is located on California Highway 33 between the towns of Gustine and Crows Landing.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 7,093 people, 2,079 households, and 1,700 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,173.4 people per square mile (1,999.0/km²). There were 2,176 housing units at an average density of 1,587.1/sq mi (613.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 60.76% White, 1.25% African American, 1.33% Native American, 1.85% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 28.92% from other races, and 5.82% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 51.43% of the population.

There were 2,079 households out of which 50.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.7% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 18.2% were non-families. 14.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.38 and the average family size was 3.74.

In the city the population was spread out with 35.3% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 100.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $39,460, and the median income for a family was $42,523. Males had a median income of $36,352 versus $25,230 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,781. About 10.0% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.7% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over.

Politics

In the state legislature Newman is located in the 12th Senate District, represented by Republican Jeff Denham, and in the 17th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Cathleen Galgiani. Federally, Newman is located in California's 18th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D +3 and is represented by Democrat Dennis Cardoza.

External links

Search another word or see Newmanon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature
FAVORITES
RECENT

;