Gregory

Gregory

[greg-uh-ree]
Gregory, Lady Augusta (Isabella Augusta Persse), 1859-1932, Irish dramatist. Though she did not begin her writing career until middle-age, Lady Gregory soon became a vital force in the Irish drama. She was a founder and the manager-director of the Abbey Theatre, for which she wrote many of her most successful pieces, including Cathleen ni Houlihan (1902), written with friend and colleague W. B. Yeats, Spreading the News (1904), The Gaol Gate (1906), The Rising of the Moon (1907), and The Workhouse Ward (1908). Her short plays, mainly comedies, are rich in portrayals of Irish peasantry. Among her other works are Our Irish Theater (1913) and several long plays dealing with Irish history.

See her journals (ed. by L. Robinson, 1946); biography by C. Toibin (2003); studies by H. Adams (1973) and M. L. Kohfeldt (1985).

Gregory, Horace, 1898-1982, American poet and critic, b. Milwaukee, Wis., grad. Univ. of Wisconsin, 1923. His poetry is noted for its dramatic structure and penetrating insights into the harshness of contemporary life. Among his volumes of poetry are Chelsea Rooming House (1930), Poems, 1930-1940 (1941), and Another Look (1976). As a critic, Gregory was the author of Pilgrim of the Apocalypse (1933), a study of D. H. Lawrence; The Shield of Achilles (1944), essays on poetry; A History of American Poetry, 1900-1940 (1946), written with his wife, the poet Marya Zaturenska; The Dying Gladiators (1961), essays; and Dorothy Richardson: An Adventure in Self-Discovery (1967). He also made translations of the poems of Catullus and of Ovid's Metamorphoses.

See his reminiscences (1971) and his collected essays (1973).

Gregory, James, 1638-75, Scottish mathematician. He invented a reflecting telescope (1661), which he described in his Optica promota (1663). In 1668 he became professor of mathematics at the Univ. of St. Andrews and, in 1674, professor of mathematics at the Univ. of Edinburgh. He originated a photometric mode of measuring the distance of stars and wrote Geometriae pars universalis (1668) and Exercitationes geometricae (1668).
Peck, Gregory, 1916-2003, American movie actor, b. La Jolla, Calif., as Eldred Gregory Peck. Peck studied at New York's Neighborhood Playhouse and debuted on Broadway in The Morning Star (1942) and in film in Days of Glory (1944). He achieved stardom in 1944 with his role in The Keys to the Kingdom and went on to become one of the screen's most enduring leading men. Tall and dark with a resonant baritone voice, Peck often portrayed characters who displayed quiet strength and nobility in the face of adversity, as he did most notably in his Academy Award-winning role of Alabama lawyer Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird (1962). Among the many other movies in which he starred are Spellbound (1945), Gentleman's Agreement (1947), Twelve O'Clock High (1949), The Gunfighter (1950), Roman Holiday (1953), Moby Dick (1956), On the Beach (1959), Cape Fear (1962, 1991), The Omen (1976), The Boys from Brazil (1978), and Old Gringo (1989). He appeared in several television productions in the 1980s and 90s. A prominent Hollywood liberal who was active in many charities, Peck also served as chairman (1967-69) of the American Film Institute and president (1967-70) of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

See biographies by M. Freedland (1980), G. Molyneaux (1995), G. Fishgall (2002), and L. Haney (2004); J. Griggs, The Films of Gregory Peck (1984, repr. 1988); Barbara Kopple, dir., A Conversation with Gregory Peck (documentary film, 1999).

orig. Georgius Florentius

(born Nov. 30?, 538/539, Clermont, Aquitaine?—died Nov. 17, 594?, Tours, Neustria) Frankish bishop and writer. Born into an aristocratic family that had produced several bishops of what is today central France, Gregory succeeded his cousin as bishop of Tours in 573. He was involved in numerous political events and in open dispute with the king, Chilperic I. His fame rests on his History of the Franks, a chief source for knowledge of the 6th-century Franco-Roman kingdom. His other writings, including Lives of the Fathers, on the lives of saints, and seven books of miracles, afford unique evidence of religious and social life in Merovingian France.

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(born circa 335, Caesarea, Cappadocia, Asia Minor—died circa 394; feast day March 9) Eastern Orthodox theologian and mystic. Initially a teacher of rhetoric, he turned to religion under the influence of his brother, Basil the Great, and was consecrated bishop of Nyssa in 372. Deposed by Arian opposition in 376, he was restored to office in 378 after the death of the Arian emperor Valens. An associate of Gregory of Nazianzus, he became a leading defender of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. His writings include The Great Catechesis, a classic outline of Orthodox theology that examines the place of the sacraments in the church. A Christian Platonist, he shared Origen's hope for ultimate universal salvation.

Learn more about Gregory of Nyssa, Saint with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Hildebrand

(born 1020, near Soana, Papal States—died May 25, 1085, Salerno, Principality of Salerno; canonized 1606; feast day May 25) Pope (1073–85). Educated in a monastery in Rome where his uncle was abbot, he rose to become a cardinal and archdeacon of Rome and was finally chosen pope in 1073. One of the great medieval reformers, Gregory attacked simony and clerical marriage and insisted that his papal legates had authority over local bishops. He is remembered chiefly for his conflict with Emperor Henry IV in the Investiture Controversy. Gregory's excommunication of the emperor gave rise to a bitter quarrel that ended when Henry begged for forgiveness in a memorable scene at Canossa, Italy, in 1077. A renewed quarrel led Gregory to excommunicate the emperor again in 1080, and Henry's forces took Rome in 1084. Gregory was rescued by Robert Guiscard, but the devastation of Rome forced the pope to withdraw to Salerno, where he died.

Learn more about Gregory VII, Saint with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Gregory the Great

(born circa 540, Rome—died March 12, 604, Rome) Pope (590–604) and doctor of the church. A Roman patrician, by age 32 he had attained the office of urban prefect. He then felt called to the religious life. He built several monasteries and served as a papal representative before being elected pope in 590, to which he only reluctantly assented. He became the architect of the medieval papacy, seeking, among other things, to curb corruption by centralizing the papal administration. In 598 he won temporary peace with the Lombards, and he allowed the Byzantine usurper Phocas to make permanent peace with them in 602. Eager to convert pagan peoples, Gregory sent Augustine of Canterbury on a mission to England (596). Under Gregory, Gothic Arian Spain see Arianism) became reconciled with Rome. He laid the basis for the Papal States. He was a strong opponent of slavery, and he extended tolerance to Jews. He wrote the Pastoral Rule, a guide for church government, and other works. His extensive recodification of the liturgy and chant led to his name being given to Gregorian chant. He is remembered as one of the greatest of all the medieval popes.

Learn more about Gregory I, Saint with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 5, 1916, La Jolla, Calif., U.S.—died June 12, 2003, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. film actor. While a premed student at the University of California at Berkeley, he developed a taste for acting. He appeared on Broadway in The Morning Star (1942) and played several other stage roles before making his film debut in Days of Glory (1944). Known for playing likeable, honest men of high moral quality, he starred in movies such as The Keys of the Kingdom (1944), Spellbound (1945), Gentleman's Agreement (1947), Twelve O'Clock High (1949), Roman Holiday (1953), and To Kill a Mockingbird (1962, Academy Award). His later films include MacArthur (1977), The Old Gringo (1989), and Cape Fear (1991). He also served for three years as president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

Learn more about Peck, (Eldred) Gregory with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 9, 1775, London, Eng.—died May 4, 1818, at sea) English novelist and dramatist. The sensational success of his gothic novel The Monk (1796) earned him the nickname “Monk” Lewis. Its horror, violence, and eroticism brought it a wide readership, though it was universally condemned. Lewis also wrote a popular music drama in the same vein, The Castle Spectre (1798). After inheriting a large fortune in Jamaica in 1812, he sailed twice to the island to inquire about the treatment of slaves on his estates there, and he died at sea. Journal of a West India Proprietor (1834) attests to his humane and liberal attitudes.

Learn more about Lewis, Matthew Gregory with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 9, 1775, London, Eng.—died May 4, 1818, at sea) English novelist and dramatist. The sensational success of his gothic novel The Monk (1796) earned him the nickname “Monk” Lewis. Its horror, violence, and eroticism brought it a wide readership, though it was universally condemned. Lewis also wrote a popular music drama in the same vein, The Castle Spectre (1798). After inheriting a large fortune in Jamaica in 1812, he sailed twice to the island to inquire about the treatment of slaves on his estates there, and he died at sea. Journal of a West India Proprietor (1834) attests to his humane and liberal attitudes.

Learn more about Lewis, Matthew Gregory with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Georgius Florentius

(born Nov. 30?, 538/539, Clermont, Aquitaine?—died Nov. 17, 594?, Tours, Neustria) Frankish bishop and writer. Born into an aristocratic family that had produced several bishops of what is today central France, Gregory succeeded his cousin as bishop of Tours in 573. He was involved in numerous political events and in open dispute with the king, Chilperic I. His fame rests on his History of the Franks, a chief source for knowledge of the 6th-century Franco-Roman kingdom. His other writings, including Lives of the Fathers, on the lives of saints, and seven books of miracles, afford unique evidence of religious and social life in Merovingian France.

Learn more about Gregory of Tours, Saint with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born circa 335, Caesarea, Cappadocia, Asia Minor—died circa 394; feast day March 9) Eastern Orthodox theologian and mystic. Initially a teacher of rhetoric, he turned to religion under the influence of his brother, Basil the Great, and was consecrated bishop of Nyssa in 372. Deposed by Arian opposition in 376, he was restored to office in 378 after the death of the Arian emperor Valens. An associate of Gregory of Nazianzus, he became a leading defender of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. His writings include The Great Catechesis, a classic outline of Orthodox theology that examines the place of the sacraments in the church. A Christian Platonist, he shared Origen's hope for ultimate universal salvation.

Learn more about Gregory of Nyssa, Saint with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Ugo Buoncompagni

(born June 7, 1502, Bologna, Romagna—died April 10, 1585, Rome, Papal States) Pope (1572–85) who promulgated the Gregorian calendar. After teaching at the University of Bologna, he served as a delegate to the Council of Trent, became a cardinal in 1565, and was elected pope in 1572. A promoter of the Counter-Reformation, he sought to execute the reform decrees of the council. He compiled the Index librorum prohibitorum and founded several colleges and seminaries, delegating their direction to the Jesuits. Aided by an astronomer and a mathematician, he corrected the errors in the Julian calendar and issued the Gregorian calendar (1582), which was later adopted worldwide.

Learn more about Gregory XIII with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Tebaldo Visconti

(born circa 1210, Piacenza, Lombardy [Italy]—died Jan. 10, 1276, Arezzo, Tuscany) Pope (1271–76). He kept the Holy Roman Empire from disintegrating, by securing the election of Rudolf I as emperor. Rudolf in return promised to lead a new Crusade and renounced claims in Rome and the papal territories. In 1274 Gregory issued a new constitution reforming the assembly of cardinals that elects a new pope. He also initiated a Crusade and worked to unify the Greek and Roman churches. He was beatified Sept. 12, 1713. His feast days are January 28 and February 4.

Learn more about Gregory X with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Hildebrand

(born 1020, near Soana, Papal States—died May 25, 1085, Salerno, Principality of Salerno; canonized 1606; feast day May 25) Pope (1073–85). Educated in a monastery in Rome where his uncle was abbot, he rose to become a cardinal and archdeacon of Rome and was finally chosen pope in 1073. One of the great medieval reformers, Gregory attacked simony and clerical marriage and insisted that his papal legates had authority over local bishops. He is remembered chiefly for his conflict with Emperor Henry IV in the Investiture Controversy. Gregory's excommunication of the emperor gave rise to a bitter quarrel that ended when Henry begged for forgiveness in a memorable scene at Canossa, Italy, in 1077. A renewed quarrel led Gregory to excommunicate the emperor again in 1080, and Henry's forces took Rome in 1084. Gregory was rescued by Robert Guiscard, but the devastation of Rome forced the pope to withdraw to Salerno, where he died.

Learn more about Gregory VII, Saint with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Ugo di Segni

(born before 1170—died Aug. 22, 1241, Rome) Pope (1227–41) who founded the papal Inquisition. In 1227 he excommunicated Frederick II when the emperor delayed in keeping his pledge to lead a Crusade. Gregory ordered an attack on the kingdom of Sicily in the emperor's absence, but his forces were defeated. In 1234 he published the Decretals, a code of canon law that remained fundamental to Catholicism until World War I. Attacking heresy in southern France and northern Italy, he strengthened the Inquisition. Frederick's invasion of Sardinia, a papal fief, led Gregory to renew his excommunication (1239); he sought support in northern Italy but died before the struggle was resolved.

Learn more about Gregory IX with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Gregory the Great

(born circa 540, Rome—died March 12, 604, Rome) Pope (590–604) and doctor of the church. A Roman patrician, by age 32 he had attained the office of urban prefect. He then felt called to the religious life. He built several monasteries and served as a papal representative before being elected pope in 590, to which he only reluctantly assented. He became the architect of the medieval papacy, seeking, among other things, to curb corruption by centralizing the papal administration. In 598 he won temporary peace with the Lombards, and he allowed the Byzantine usurper Phocas to make permanent peace with them in 602. Eager to convert pagan peoples, Gregory sent Augustine of Canterbury on a mission to England (596). Under Gregory, Gothic Arian Spain see Arianism) became reconciled with Rome. He laid the basis for the Papal States. He was a strong opponent of slavery, and he extended tolerance to Jews. He wrote the Pastoral Rule, a guide for church government, and other works. His extensive recodification of the liturgy and chant led to his name being given to Gregorian chant. He is remembered as one of the greatest of all the medieval popes.

Learn more about Gregory I, Saint with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Gregory is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rogers County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 150 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Gregory is located at (36.165593, -95.574186). According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.0 square miles (7.8 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 150 people, 54 households, and 46 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 49.8 people per square mile (19.2/km²). There were 55 housing units at an average density of 18.2/sq mi (7.1/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 83.33% White, 10.00% Native American, 0.67% Asian, and 6.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.33% of the population.

There were 54 households out of which 38.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.5% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 13.0% were non-families. 9.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 28.0% under the age of 18, 3.3% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $70,865, and the median income for a family was $71,154. Males had a median income of $36,731 versus $31,875 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $22,116. There were none of the families and 2.0% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64.

References

External links

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