Carlos

Carlos

[kahr-lohs, -luhs; Sp. kahr-laws]
Ibáñez del Campo, Carlos, 1877-1960, president of Chile (1927-31, 1952-58). An army general who served as minister of war (1925-27) and vice president (1927), he became president upon the forced resignation of President Emiliano Figueroa. He ruled dictatorially, suppressing all opposition. He launched many public works projects and instituted educational and labor reform, remaining popular until the worldwide depression hit Chile. Widespread demonstrations in 1931 forced him into exile in Argentina. After several attempts to regain power, he was elected (1949) to the senate. He won the presidency (1952) by a plurality after promising to curb inflation and to reform the bureaucracy. His administration was hampered, however, by opposition in congress and by his own old age.
Fuentes, Carlos, 1928-, Mexican writer, editor, and diplomat. He was head of the department of cultural relations in Mexico's ministry of foreign affairs (1956-59) and Mexican ambassador to France (1975-77). Much of his fiction, which generally deals with themes of Mexican identity and history and often focuses on both politics and sex, is a synthesis of reality and fantasy, transcending the limits of time and space (see magic realism). His works include La región más transparente (1958; tr. Where the Air Is Clear, 1960), Las buenas conciencias (1959; tr. Good Conscience, 1968), Cambio de piel (1967; tr. A Change of Skin, 1968), Terra Nostra (1975, tr. 1976), Una familia lejana (1980; tr. Distant Relations, 1982), La Campaña (1990, tr. The Campaign, 1991), Años con Laura Díaz (1999; tr. The Years with Laura Díaz, 2000), Instinto de Inez (2001, tr. Inez, 2002), and Silla del Águila (2003, tr. The Eagle's Throne, 2006). His nonfiction books include The Buried Mirror (1992), a study of Spanish and Latin American cultural history, and This I Believe (2005), an alphabetically arranged combination memoir, manifesto, and literary essay. Fuentes has also written numerous essays and short stories, e.g., Todas las Familias Felices (2006, tr. Happy Families, 2008).

See biographies by W. Faris (1983) and A. González (1987); studies by R. Brody and C. Rossman, ed. (1982), K. Ibsen (1993), R. L. Williams (1996), C. Helmuth (1997), and M. Van Delden (1998).

Carlos. For Spanish and Portuguese kings thus named, use Charles.
Carlos, 1545-68, prince of the Asturias, son of Philip II of Spain and Maria of Portugal. Don Carlos, who seems to have been mentally unbalanced and subject to fits of homicidal mania, was imprisoned by his father in 1568. When he died shortly afterward, it was rumored (falsely) that Philip had poisoned him. Friedrich von Schiller deliberately idealized his character in his tragedy Don Carlos, portraying him as a champion of liberalism, unhappily in love with his stepmother, Elizabeth of Valois.
Carlos (Carlos María Isidro de Borbón), 1788-1855, second son of Charles IV of Spain. He was the first Carlist pretender. After his father's abdication (1808) he was, with the rest of his family, held a prisoner in France until 1814. A conservative and a devout Catholic, he was supported by the clerical party when he refused to recognize Isabella, daughter of his brother, Ferdinand VII, as successor to the Spanish throne. When his niece became queen (1833) as Isabella II, Don Carlos took up arms. Defeated in 1839, he escaped to France and renounced his claim in favor of his son, Don Carlos, conde de Montemolín. See Carlists.
Saavedra Lamas, Carlos, 1880-1959, Argentine statesman, foreign minister (1932-38). An advocate of Pan-Americanism and of the League of Nations (he was president of the Assembly in 1936), he presided over several international conferences. He drafted (1932) an antiwar pact adopted (1933-34) by many American republics, and together with Argentine president Agustín Pedro Justo he was instrumental in bringing an end to the war over the Chaco (see Gran chaco). Saavedra Lamas received the 1936 Nobel Peace Prize.
Salinas de Gortari, Carlos, 1948-, president of Mexico (1988-94). A Harvard-educated political economist, he became minister of planning and the budget (1982-87) and succeeded Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado as president in 1988. A member of the ruling Institutional Revolutionary party (PRI) from his student days, he became the first PRI presidential candidate to face competitive elections. Salinas won with 50.4% of the vote, but his victory was the result of PRI fraud. As president, he worked to revive Mexico's economy by curbing inflation and reducing government regulations. He became the major promoter of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and in signing the accord (1992) reversed Mexico's historical resistance to foreign investment and to U.S. involvement in its affairs.

Although Salinas's administration was praised for its economic reforms, it lost some of its luster when his brother Raúl was arrested and convicted in 1995 for the 1994 murder of a PRI official and was later (1996) accused of massive financial misappropriations. After Carlos Salinas responded by criticizing the Mexican government, he was pressured into de facto exile, only returning to Mexico in 2000. Raül's 1995 conviction was overturned in 2005, and in 2006 he was acquitted (in Switzerland) of money-laundering charges.

Mendieta y Montefur, Carlos, 1873-1960, Cuban political leader. He was one of the chief opponents of Gerardo Machado. Mendieta, installed as provisional president (1934) by a coup led by Fulgencio Batista, was unable to establish political stability and therefore resigned (1935).
Arana Osorio, Carlos, 1918-2003, president of Guatemala (1970-74). A conservative army colonel noted for his successes during an antiguerrilla campaign (1966-68), he was elected president on a law-and-order platform. He declared (Nov., 1970) a state of siege, which resulted in the suspension of civil liberties, and directed a vigorous campaign that brought a decline in guerrilla-terrorist activities. Political opponents, student radicals, and labor groups also were harassed and persecuted. He instituted a five-year development plan (1971-75) that had little effect on the country, and later served as ambassador to Nicaragua.
Reyles, Carlos, 1868-1938, Uruguayan novelist. A wealthy breeder of horses, Reyles traveled extensively and devoted himself to writing. His impassioned, naturalistic novels include La raza de Caín [Cain's race] (1900), showing the influence of Zola. Beba (1894) and El terruño [the plot of earth] (1916) depict Uruguayan ranch life; El embrujo de Sevilla (1922, tr. Castanets, 1929) is a prose poem about the Andalusian city. Reyles lost his fortune by 1929. His masterwork, El Gaucho Florida (1932), deals with the social upheaval of ranch and gaucho life.
Chávez, Carlos, 1899-1975, Mexican composer and conductor. In 1928, Chávez established the Symphony Orchestra of Mexico, which he conducted until 1949. He was also director (1928-34) of the National Conservatory of Music, where he radically reformed the curriculum. He used elements of indigenous Mexican music and instruments in his Xochipilli Macuilxochitl (1940). The influence of Stravinsky is evident in several of his works. His most important compositions include the ballet El fuego nuevo (1921); the ballet-symphony H.P. [horsepower] (1926-27); Sinfonía Antigona (1933); a piano concerto (1938-40); a violin concerto (1948-50); the Fourth and Fifth symphonies (1953, 1954); and Invention, for string trio (premiere, 1965). Chávez is the author of Toward a New Music (1937) and Musical Thought (1961).
Lleras Restrepo, Carlos, 1908-94, president of Colombia (1966-70). The son of a well-known bacteriologist, he was a lawyer and economist who served in a number of government posts in the 1930s and 1940s. He served as leader of the Liberal party during the bloody civil war touched off by the assassination (1948) of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. He became party leader again in 1961. As president, Lleras Restrepo won acclaim by sharply reducing the rate of inflation, diversifying the country's ailing one-crop (coffee) economy, restoring the balance of payments, and instituting a land reform program. After completing his term of office he remained politically active as head of the Liberal party. He wrote numerous books on social and economic problems.
Calvo, Carlos, 1824-1906, Argentine diplomat and historian. He spent much of his life in diplomatic service abroad. He edited a collection of Latin American treaties and did other historical work but was most important as a writer on international law. Although he was influenced by Henry Wheaton, his development of international doctrines broke new paths. His best-known work is Derecho internacional teórico y práctico de Europa y América (Paris, 1868; greatly expanded in subsequent editions, which were published in French). In this book he expressed the principle known as the Calvo Doctrine, which would prohibit the use of diplomatic intervention as a method of enforcing private claims before local remedies have been exhausted. It is wider in scope than the Drago Doctrine (see under Drago, Luis María), which grew out of it. The Calvo Clause, found in constitutions, treaties, statutes, and contracts, is the concrete application of the doctrine. Used chiefly in concession contracts, the clause attempts to give local courts final jurisdiction and to obviate any appeal to diplomatic intervention.
Slim Helú, Carlos, 1940-, Mexican business executive. The son of a Lebanese Maronite immigrant who became a successful merchant and real-estate investor, Slim was trained as a civil engineer (grad. 1960). In the 1960s he began acquiring struggling Mexican companies and transforming them into lean, modernized, and profitable businesses, winning a reputation as a shrewd investor. In 1990 the well-connected Slim acquired Telmex, the government telephone company, and was then awarded the sole national cellular telephone license, which was used to establish América Móvil. He has since also become notorious for anticompetitive maneuvers to preserve his lucrative dominance of Mexico's telecommunications industry.

Slim's other holdings include Internet-related businesses and banks; energy, construction, and mining companies; insurance and real estate firms; retail chain stores; restaurants; and plants making cigarettes, auto parts, and many other products. Since 2000 an increasing number of his investments have in other Latin American countries and the United States. Slim, whose fortune was estimated in 2007 at $59 billion (equivalent to almost 7% of Mexico's annual economic output), is one of the wealthiest individuals in the world. His financial success has made him the most visible example of the concentration of Mexico's economic wealth in the hands of a relative few.

Drummond de Andrade, Carlos: see Andrade, Carlos Drummond de.

(born Sept. 17, 1883, Rutherford, N.J., U.S.—died March 4, 1963, Rutherford) U.S. poet. Trained as a pediatrician, Williams wrote poetry and practiced medicine in his hometown. He is noted for making the ordinary appear extraordinary through clear and discrete imagery, as in the fresh and direct impressions of the sensuous world expressed in “The Red Wheelbarrow,” from Spring and All (1923). Paterson (1946–58), a five-part long poem, evokes a complex vision of modern American life. In 1963 he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in poetry for Pictures from Brueghel (1962). His numerous prose works include essays, a trilogy of novels, short stories, drama, and autobiography.

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(born Sept. 17, 1883, Rutherford, N.J., U.S.—died March 4, 1963, Rutherford) U.S. poet. Trained as a pediatrician, Williams wrote poetry and practiced medicine in his hometown. He is noted for making the ordinary appear extraordinary through clear and discrete imagery, as in the fresh and direct impressions of the sensuous world expressed in “The Red Wheelbarrow,” from Spring and All (1923). Paterson (1946–58), a five-part long poem, evokes a complex vision of modern American life. In 1963 he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in poetry for Pictures from Brueghel (1962). His numerous prose works include essays, a trilogy of novels, short stories, drama, and autobiography.

Learn more about Williams, William Carlos with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 3, 1948, Mexico City, Mex.) President of Mexico (1988–94). Son of a Mexican senator, Salinas earned a Ph.D. in economics at Harvard University and held various governmental posts until he was elected president in 1988 by a slim margin; vote fraud was widely charged. He pursued a program of economic retrenchment and privatization, selling off hundreds of inefficient state-owned corporations and spending part of the proceeds on infrastructure and social services. In 1991–92 his government co-negotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement. The economic collapse immediately following his term made him the target of bitter criticism. The assassination of his party's nominee as his successor was linked to Salinas's associates, and Salinas fled to the U.S. and eventually Ireland. His brother Raúl, widely suspected of extensive corruption, was convicted in 1999 of complicity in another assassination.

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Japanese Koizumi Yakumo

(born June 27, 1850, Levkás, Ionian Islands, Greece—died Sept. 26, 1904, Omacrkubo, Japan) Irish-U.S.-Japanese writer, translator, and teacher. He immigrated to the U.S. at age 19 and worked as a reporter and translator, writing on a wide range of subjects. In 1890 he traveled as a magazine writer to Japan, where he soon became a teacher, took a Japanese wife and name, and became a Japanese subject. Articles and books about Japan's customs, religion, and literature followed, including Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan (1894), Exotics and Retrospective (1898), In Ghostly Japan (1899), Shadowings (1900), and A Japanese Miscellany (1901); Kwaidan (1904) is a collection of supernatural stories and haiku translations. It was Hearn who, perhaps more than any other single person, introduced the broad culture of Japan to the West.

Learn more about Hearn, (Patricio) Lafcadio (Tessima Carlos) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Carlos Fuentes, 2003.

(born Nov. 11, 1928, Panama City, Pan.) Mexican writer and diplomat. The son of a Mexican career diplomat, he traveled widely before studying law and entering the diplomatic service. He is best known for his experimental novels. His first, Where the Air Is Clear (1958), a bitter indictment of Mexican society, won him national prestige. The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962), about the final hours of an unscrupulous former revolutionary, made his international reputation. Among his later novels are Terra Nostra (1975), The Hydra Head (1978), The Old Gringo (1985), and The Years with Laura Díaz (1999). “The Buried Mirror” (1992) is a long essay on Hispanic cultures.

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(born Dec. 3, 1833, Puerto Príncipe, Cuba—died Aug. 20, 1915, Havana) Cuban epidemiologist. He is known for his discovery that yellow fever is transmitted by a mosquito. Though he published experimental evidence in 1886, his ideas were ignored for nearly 20 years. He urged the study of means of transmission and stated that the carrier was the mosquito Culex fasciatus (now called Aedes aegypti). In 1900 Walter Reed confirmed Finlay's theory, leading to the eradication of yellow fever in Cuba and Panama by William Gorgas. After his death, the Cuban government created the Finlay Institute for Investigations in Tropical Medicine.

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(born March 23, 1818, near Marietta, Ohio, U.S.—died Nov. 19, 1898, Rockport, Ky.) U.S. general. A graduate of West Point, he was appointed general of volunteers at the start of the American Civil War, and he helped organize the Union's Army of the Potomac. He was sent to Kentucky to succeed William T. Sherman and to organize the Army of the Ohio. In 1862 he was Union commander in the Kentucky campaign against Confederate forces under Braxton Bragg. Following the Battle of Perryville, he was removed from his command for alleged tardiness in his pursuit of Confederate forces.

Learn more about Buell, Don Carlos with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 3, 1833, Puerto Príncipe, Cuba—died Aug. 20, 1915, Havana) Cuban epidemiologist. He is known for his discovery that yellow fever is transmitted by a mosquito. Though he published experimental evidence in 1886, his ideas were ignored for nearly 20 years. He urged the study of means of transmission and stated that the carrier was the mosquito Culex fasciatus (now called Aedes aegypti). In 1900 Walter Reed confirmed Finlay's theory, leading to the eradication of yellow fever in Cuba and Panama by William Gorgas. After his death, the Cuban government created the Finlay Institute for Investigations in Tropical Medicine.

Learn more about Finlay, Carlos J(uan) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Carlos Fuentes, 2003.

(born Nov. 11, 1928, Panama City, Pan.) Mexican writer and diplomat. The son of a Mexican career diplomat, he traveled widely before studying law and entering the diplomatic service. He is best known for his experimental novels. His first, Where the Air Is Clear (1958), a bitter indictment of Mexican society, won him national prestige. The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962), about the final hours of an unscrupulous former revolutionary, made his international reputation. Among his later novels are Terra Nostra (1975), The Hydra Head (1978), The Old Gringo (1985), and The Years with Laura Díaz (1999). “The Buried Mirror” (1992) is a long essay on Hispanic cultures.

Learn more about Fuentes, Carlos with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 23, 1818, near Marietta, Ohio, U.S.—died Nov. 19, 1898, Rockport, Ky.) U.S. general. A graduate of West Point, he was appointed general of volunteers at the start of the American Civil War, and he helped organize the Union's Army of the Potomac. He was sent to Kentucky to succeed William T. Sherman and to organize the Army of the Ohio. In 1862 he was Union commander in the Kentucky campaign against Confederate forces under Braxton Bragg. Following the Battle of Perryville, he was removed from his command for alleged tardiness in his pursuit of Confederate forces.

Learn more about Buell, Don Carlos with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Carlos is a city in Douglas County, Minnesota, United States. The population was 329 at the 2000 census.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.5 square miles (1.2 km²), all of it land.

Minnesota State Highway 29 and County Highway 13 are two of the main routes in the community.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 329 people, 140 households, and 89 families residing in the city. The population density was 702.3 people per square mile (270.3/km²). There were 153 housing units at an average density of 326.6/sq mi (125.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 99.09% White, 0.61% African American and 0.30% Asian.

There were 140 households out of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.4% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.88.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 12.5% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 109.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $38,125, and the median income for a family was $44,250. Males had a median income of $22,283 versus $19,250 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,495. None of the families and 4.4% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 5.3% of those over 64.

References

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