Definitions

(stone)

drupe

[droop]

Fruit in which the outer layer is a thin skin, the middle layer is thick and usually fleshy (though sometimes tough, as in the almond, or fibrous, as in the coconut), and the inner layer (the pit) is hard and stony. Within the pit is usually one seed. In aggregate fruits such as the raspberry and blackberry (which are not true berries), many small drupes are clumped together. Other representative drupes are the cherry, peach, mango, olive, and walnut.

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Huge, often undressed stone used in various types of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age monuments. The most ancient form of megalithic construction is probably the dolmen, a type of burial chamber consisting of several upright supports and a flat roofing slab. Another form is the menhir, a simple upright stone usually placed with others to form a circle, as at Stonehenge and Avebury in England, or a straight alignment, as at Carnac in France. The meaning of megalithic monuments remains largely unknown, but all share certain architectural and technical features suggesting that their creators sought to impose a conspicuously human design on the landscape and imbue it with cultural symbols. Seealso rock art.

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Several traditional gemstone cuts

Any of various minerals prized for beauty, durability, and rarity. A few noncrystalline materials of organic origin (e.g., pearl, red coral, and amber) also are classified as gemstones. Of the more than 3,500 identified natural minerals, fewer than 100 are used as gemstones and only 16 have achieved importance: beryl, chrysoberyl, corundum, diamond, feldspar, garnet, jade, lazurite, olivine, opal, quartz, spinel, topaz, tourmaline, turquoise, and zircon. Some of these (e.g., beryl and corundum) provide more than one type of gem. In virtually all cases, the minerals have to be cut and polished for use in jewelry.

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or renal calculus

Mass of minerals and organic matter that may form in a kidney. Urine contains many salts in solution, and low fluid volume or high mineral concentration can cause these salts to precipitate and grow, forming stones. Large stones can block urine flow, be a focus for infection, or cause renal colic (painful spasms). They can obstruct the urinary system at various points. Treatment deals with any underlying problem (e.g., infection or obstruction), tries to dissolve stones with drugs or ultrasound (lithotripsy), or removes large ones surgically.

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Abstract stone carving by the prehistoric cultures of North America. They resemble birds and are about 6 in. (15 cm) long. Many were carved from black, brown, or dark green slate and polished with sand or other abrasive materials. All feature a pair of conical holes running diagonally through the base. They may have been used as weights or handles on a short rod (known as an atlatl) used to hurl spears or arrows.

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(born Aug. 21, 1937, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. novelist. He served in the U.S. Navy before attending New York and Stanford universities. Dog Soldiers (1974, National Book Award), his second novel, brought home the corruption of the Vietnam War. His later works include the novels A Flag for Sunrise (1981), Outerbridge Reach (1992), and Damascus Gate (1998) and the short-story collection Bear and His Daughter (1997).

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(born Aug. 13, 1818, West Brookfield, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 18, 1893, Dorchester, Mass.) U.S. pioneer in the woman suffrage movement. A graduate of Oberlin College (1847), she became a lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. She soon began speaking for women's rights and helped organize women's-rights conventions in the 1850s. She retained her own name after her marriage to Henry Blackwell (1825–1909) as a protest against the unequal laws applicable to married women; other women who later chose to do the same called themselves “Lucy Stoners.” In 1869 she and Blackwell helped establish the American Woman Suffrage Association and founded the influential suffrage magazine Woman's Journal, which they edited until their deaths. They were assisted by their daughter Alice Stone Blackwell (1857–1950), who served as chief editor (1893–1917).

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orig. Isidor Feinstein

(born Dec. 24, 1907, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died June 18, 1989, Boston, Mass.) U.S. journalist. He worked on newspapers in his native Philadelphia and in New York and wrote for the leftist newspaper PM before starting his own investigative newsletter. From the outset I. F. Stone's Weekly (1953–67; I. F. Stone's Bi-Weekly, 1967–71) had an influence far greater than the size of its readership, which included some of the nation's most prominent politicians, academicians, and journalists. The sole author, Stone created a unique blend of wit, erudition, and pointed political commentary, and he became known for his espousal of unpopular causes long before they were taken up by the liberal establishment.

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Harlan Fiske Stone, 1929.

(born Oct. 11, 1872, Chesterfield, N.H., U.S.—died April 22, 1946, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He studied at Columbia Law School and later practiced law while serving as dean (1910–23). Pres. Calvin Coolidge appointed him U.S. attorney general in 1924; during his tenure he reorganized the Federal Bureau of Investigation after its reputation had been tarnished by the Teapot Dome and other scandals. In 1925 Coolidge appointed him to the Supreme Court of the United States, and in 1941 Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted him to chief justice, a position he retained until his death. He wrote more than 600 opinions, many on important constitutional questions. He was often less successful, however, in building a consensus among his associate justices, with the result that the court during his chief justiceship was often a bitterly divided body.

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(born March 9, 1902, Fayetteville, Ark., U.S.—died Aug. 6, 1978, New York, N.Y.) U.S. architect. He earned architecture degrees and traveled in Europe before joining the New York City firm that designed Radio City Music Hall. In 1936 he organized his own architectural firm. A leading exponent of the International Style, he designed El Panamá Hotel in Panama City (1946), the U.S. embassy in New Delhi (1954), the U.S. pavilion at the Brussels World's Fair (1958), the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. (1971), and the Aon Center in Chicago (1974). He also taught at Yale University (1946–52).

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First known period of prehistoric human culture, characterized by the use of stone tools. The term is little used by specialists today. See Paleolithic Period; Mesolithic Period; Neolithic Period; stone-tool industry. Seealso Bronze Age; Iron Age.

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The Rosetta Stone, with Egyptian hieroglyphs in the top section, demotic characters in the middle, elipsis

Inscribed stone slab, now in the British Museum, that provided an important key to the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs. An irregularly shaped block of black basalt with inscriptions in hieroglyphs, Demotic Egyptian, and Greek, it was discovered by Napoleon's troops near the town of Rosetta (Rashid), northeast of Alexandria, in 1799. The text concerns the deeds of Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205–180 BC) and dates from the ninth year of his reign. Its decipherment was begun by Thomas Young, who isolated the proper names in the Demotic version, and decisively completed by J.-F. Champollion, who grasped that some hieroglyphs were phonetic.

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(born Aug. 21, 1937, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. novelist. He served in the U.S. Navy before attending New York and Stanford universities. Dog Soldiers (1974, National Book Award), his second novel, brought home the corruption of the Vietnam War. His later works include the novels A Flag for Sunrise (1981), Outerbridge Reach (1992), and Damascus Gate (1998) and the short-story collection Bear and His Daughter (1997).

Learn more about Stone, Robert (Anthony) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Old Stone Age

Ancient technological or cultural stage characterized by the use of rudimentary chipped stone tools. During the Lower Paleolithic (circa 2,500,000–200,000 years ago), simple pebble tools and crude stone choppers were made by the earliest humans. About 700,000 years ago, the first rough hand ax appeared; it was later refined and used with other tools in the Acheulean industry. A flake-tool tradition emerged in the Middle Paleolithic, as exemplified by implements of the Mousterian industry. The Upper Paleolithic (40,000–10,000 BC) saw the emergence of more complex, specialized, and diverse regional stone-tool industries, such as the Aurignacian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian. The two principal forms of Paleolithic art are small sculptures—such as the so-called Venus figurines and various carved or shaped animal and other figures—and monumental paintings, incised designs, and reliefs on the walls of caves such as Altamira (in Spain) and Lascaux Grotto (in France). The end of the Paleolithic is marked by the emergence of the settled agricultural villages of the Neolithic Period.

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or New Stone Age

Final stage of technological development or cultural evolution among prehistoric humans. It is characterized by the use of stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, the domestication of plants or animals, the establishment of permanent villages, and the practice of such crafts as pottery and weaving. The Neolithic followed the Paleolithic Period (and in northwestern Europe the Mesolithic) and preceded the Bronze Age. Its beginning is associated with the villages that emerged in South Asia circa 9000 BC and flourished in the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys from circa 7000 BC. Farming spread northward throughout Eurasia, reaching Britain and Scandinavia only after 3000 BC. Neolithic technologies also spread to the Indus River valley of India by 5000 BC and to the Huang Ho valley of China by circa 3500 BC. The term is not applied to the New World, though Neolithic modes of life were achieved independently there by circa 2500 BC.

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(born Aug. 13, 1818, West Brookfield, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 18, 1893, Dorchester, Mass.) U.S. pioneer in the woman suffrage movement. A graduate of Oberlin College (1847), she became a lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. She soon began speaking for women's rights and helped organize women's-rights conventions in the 1850s. She retained her own name after her marriage to Henry Blackwell (1825–1909) as a protest against the unequal laws applicable to married women; other women who later chose to do the same called themselves “Lucy Stoners.” In 1869 she and Blackwell helped establish the American Woman Suffrage Association and founded the influential suffrage magazine Woman's Journal, which they edited until their deaths. They were assisted by their daughter Alice Stone Blackwell (1857–1950), who served as chief editor (1893–1917).

Learn more about Stone, Lucy with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Isidor Feinstein

(born Dec. 24, 1907, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died June 18, 1989, Boston, Mass.) U.S. journalist. He worked on newspapers in his native Philadelphia and in New York and wrote for the leftist newspaper PM before starting his own investigative newsletter. From the outset I. F. Stone's Weekly (1953–67; I. F. Stone's Bi-Weekly, 1967–71) had an influence far greater than the size of its readership, which included some of the nation's most prominent politicians, academicians, and journalists. The sole author, Stone created a unique blend of wit, erudition, and pointed political commentary, and he became known for his espousal of unpopular causes long before they were taken up by the liberal establishment.

Learn more about Stone, I(sidor) F(einstein) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Harlan Fiske Stone, 1929.

(born Oct. 11, 1872, Chesterfield, N.H., U.S.—died April 22, 1946, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He studied at Columbia Law School and later practiced law while serving as dean (1910–23). Pres. Calvin Coolidge appointed him U.S. attorney general in 1924; during his tenure he reorganized the Federal Bureau of Investigation after its reputation had been tarnished by the Teapot Dome and other scandals. In 1925 Coolidge appointed him to the Supreme Court of the United States, and in 1941 Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted him to chief justice, a position he retained until his death. He wrote more than 600 opinions, many on important constitutional questions. He was often less successful, however, in building a consensus among his associate justices, with the result that the court during his chief justiceship was often a bitterly divided body.

Learn more about Stone, Harlan Fiske with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 9, 1902, Fayetteville, Ark., U.S.—died Aug. 6, 1978, New York, N.Y.) U.S. architect. He earned architecture degrees and traveled in Europe before joining the New York City firm that designed Radio City Music Hall. In 1936 he organized his own architectural firm. A leading exponent of the International Style, he designed El Panamá Hotel in Panama City (1946), the U.S. embassy in New Delhi (1954), the U.S. pavilion at the Brussels World's Fair (1958), the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. (1971), and the Aon Center in Chicago (1974). He also taught at Yale University (1946–52).

Learn more about Stone, Edward Durell with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Stone may refer to:

Construction and building

  • Masonry, the building of structures from stone
  • Coade stone, a special form of vitreous stoneware, used for monumental work and architectural decoration
  • Standing stone, a solitary stone set vertically into the ground
for the types of stone used in sculpture and construction

Geology

  • Rock (geology), a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids, or an individual piece of rock
  • Marble, a metamorphic rock resulting from the metamorphism of limestone

a mixture of faded pastel colours reminiscent of mother of pearl(written by B.J.G)

Books and comics

Film and television

Music

Places in England

Units of measure

  • Stone (mass), a unit of mass which since the latter half of the twentieth century has been equal to fourteen pounds
  • Stone (Chinese weight), a Chinese unit of weight equal to 120 piculs or 160 pounds

Other meanings

See also

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