) was a common year starting on Monday
(link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar
(or a common year starting on Saturday
of the 12-day slower Julian calendar
Events of 1849
January - March
- January 1
- January 12 - Palermo, Sicily rises up against Austrian troops.
- January 13 -Second Anglo-Sikh War - British forces retreat from the Battle of Tooele.
- January 21 - General elections are held in the Papal States.
- January 23 - Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York, thus becoming the United States' first woman doctor.
- January 31 - The Corn Laws are abolished in the United Kingdom (following legislation in 1846).
- February 8 - The New Roman Republic is established.
- February 14 - In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first President of the United States to have his photograph taken.
- February 28 - Regular steamboat service from the west to the east coast of the United States begins with the arrival of the SS California in San Francisco Bay. The California leaves New York Harbor on October 6, 1848, rounds Cape Horn at the tip of South America, and arrives at San Francisco, California after the 4 month 21 day journey.
- March - The Frankfurt Parliament completes its drafting of a liberal constitution and elects Frederick William IV emperor of the new German national state.
- March 3
- March 4 - Zachary Taylor refuses to be sworn in office on a Sabbath (Sunday). Urban legend holds that David Rice Atchison, President pro tempore of the United States Senate was President de jure for a single day.
- March 5 - Zachary Taylor, the 12th President of the United States of America, takes his oath of office.
- March 28 - Four Christians are ordered burnt alive in Antananarivo, Madagascar by Queen Ranavalona I and 14 others are executed.
- March 29 - The United Kingdom annexes the Punjab.
April - June
July - September
October - December
January - June
- January 9 - John Hartley, English tennis player, double winner of Wimbledon (d. 1935)
- January 14 - James Moore, winner of the first ever cycle race (d. 1935)
- January 18
- January 22 - August Strindberg, Swedish author, playwright, and painter (d. 1912)
- February 13 - Lord Randolph Churchill, British statesman (d. 1895)
- February 18 - Alexander Kielland, Norwegian author (d. 1906)
- February 22 - Nikolay Yakovlevich Sonin, Russian mathematician (d. 1915)
- March 2 - Robert Means Thompson, American naval officer (d. 1930)
- March 7 - Luther Burbank, American biologist and botanist (d. 1926)
- March 19 - Alfred von Tirpitz, German soldier (d. 1930)
- April 6 - John William Waterhouse, Italian-born artist (d. 1917)
- May 3 - Bernhard von Bülow, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1929)
- May 16 - Jalaleddin Ali Mir Abolfazl Angha, 39th Oveyssi Sufi master (d. 1914)
- May 22 - Louis Perrier, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1913)
- June 9 - Michael Peter Ancher, Danish painter (d. 1927)
July - December
- July 22 - Emma Lazarus, American poet (d. 1887)
- July 29 - Max Nordau, Austrian author, philosopher, and Zionist leader (d. 1923)
- August 28 - Benjamin Godard, French composer (d. 1895)
- September 3 - Sarah Orne Jewett, American writer (d. 1909)
- September 14 - Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Russian researcher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1936)
- November 24 - Frances Hodgson Burnett, English-American playwright and author (d. 1945)
- November 29 - John Ambrose Fleming, English electrical engineer and inventor (d. 1924)
- December 4 - Crazy Horse, Chief of the Oglala Sioux (d. 1877)
- December 5 - Eduard Seler, Prussian scholar and Mesoamericanist (d. 1922)
- December 6 - August von Mackensen, German field marshal (d. 1945)
- December 12 - William Kissam Vanderbilt, American railway magnate (d. 1920)
- Muhammad Abduh, Islamic reformer (d. 1905)
January - June
July - December