İnebolu is a small town of less than 10,000 inhabitants, located on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. It is from Istanbul by road and north of Kastamonu. It is a typical Black Sea port town with many fine examples of traditional domestic architecture.
By 1834, İnebolu was considered a sub-district of today's city of Kure (approx. inland), but it became a district in its own right in 1867.
During the Turkish War of Independence, arms and ammunition were transferred to Anatolia through İnebolu. The town was attacked and defended itself with determination, for which it was honoured with the Independence Medal by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
Atatürk initiated a campaign in İnebolu to reform personal appearance and "civilize" garments; Atatürk made a well-known speech about hats there.
In accordance with the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923, the town's Greek inhabitants were exiled to Greece. Many of these emigrants settled in a neighborhood called Inepolis in the Athenian suburb of Nea Ionia.
There is little left of archaeological note in İnebolu, other than the ruins of its first, second and third fortifications.
The ruins of the first castle, most of which has been destroyed and upon which much has been built, are located in Boyran. The east wall of the castle extends from the İnebolu River, over the Abas hill, and up to the quarter called Avara. The ruins of the fortress walls are located around the cemeteries on the Abas hills. A part of the north wall of the interior castle, which is 6 meters high and 3 meters wide, still stands.
The second castle stood where today's Karadeniz primary school is. A few parts of the walls can still be seen.
The third castle is on Gerisch hill, from where the whole region of İnebolu can be seen. It is located south of the town and is of considerable height. There are also the undated ruins of a monastery, which have been heavily pillaged by artifact-seekers. Only some parts of the walls, large main entrance stairs, the baptisimal basin and well remain. Greeks who live in İnebolu celebrate the 15th of August here by holding a feast.
Küre and the larger Isfendiyar mountains rise above the coastline, which is narrow and steep, with few sandy beaches.
The sea around İnebolu is approximately 200 meters deep.
Some of the important rivers around İnebolu are:
The town is surrounded by many hills of varying height. The most well-known are the Geriş hill (Geriş Tepesi), which is 495 meters high, and the Islam hill to the southwest, which is 589 metres high.
Other hills are :
İnebolu has a Black Sea climate, with mild winters. The warmest months in the Summer are July and August. The coolest recorded temperature is 6.6 °C and the warmest monthly average is 21 °C. The annual average temperature is approx. 15 °C.
Snowfall is heavy during the winter, but the snow dissipates rapidly because of strong winds.
The region is thickly wooded.
Historically, the port of İnebolu was a bustling merchant city, long considered the gateway to east. Its Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1887; at the time, records indicate that İnebolu was home to 2500 registered merchants and 1000 independent craftsmen.
However, traffic was eventually routed around Kastamonu and İnebolu lost its commercial importance, leaving only the timber industry viable.
Soil conditions make most agriculture difficult, but fruit, wheat and corn are cultivated. Inland, there are thick forests and grasslands where cattle is farmed.
Tomatoes, beans and paprika are the most popular vegetables grown in İnebolu. Chestnuts, pears, mulberries, figs, walnuts and hazelnuts are also grown in the region.
İnebolu is known for its thriving apiary industry.
A fishing co-operative was established in 1986. Depending on the season, one can find the following fish species in İnebolu: Hamsi (Anchovy), Kalkan (Turbot), Mezgit (Whiting), Istavrit (Horse mackerel), Kefal (Grey Mullet), Cinekop and Luefer (two varieties of bluefish), Palamut (Bonito/Tunny), Uskumru (Mackerel), Vatoz (Thornback ray), Zargana (Garfish) and others.
Forestry is important in İnebolu. There are 672.10 square kilometres of forest. are mixed woodland, where beech, black fir, oak, birch tree and pine can all be found. are wild forest. are controlled forest and trees.
The export of timber products increased from 1985 to 1996 by 250%. In 1986, the town had 20 timber processing enterprises.
İnebolu offers many fine examples of traditional Turkish architecture in the Ottoman style. By the end of the 19th century many wealthy inhabitants İnebolu built large houses along the banks of the Ikıcay river that divides the town. By 1890, the town had hundreds of beautiful houses built in this special style:
The ground floor is built of stone and contains a cellar and pantry. Above it are one or two stories, each containing four bedrooms, one antechamber, a kitchen and toilet. Each of the floors is built so that it can easily be converted into one independent flat by closing a single door. This feature allows the married children of families to continue living in the same ancestral home they grew up in. Each floor also has its own separate street access.
The rooms have many windows and each room has a corbel and framework which enables the women to look out onto the street without being seen. The ceilings of the rooms are high and covered in carved art. Hand-rails in the houses are carved from a single piece of wood.
Most of the houses have roofs that are tiled with a special sea-stone called “Marla.” The tiles are wide, thin and heav, and protect the houses from the strong northeast winds that blow across the Black Sea. The stone also provides an excellent insulation against heat.
Each house has an orchard garden, where fruits such as plums, mulberris, apples, pears, hazelnuts and walnuts are grown. Each garden has a well, which is used to refrigerate foodstuffs during the hot summer days.
The houses are painted with a special claret mineral pigment known as asi boyasi, which is highly resistant to sunlight and weathering.
There is no passenger boat service to İnebolu. However, motorways and highways are sufficient and in good condition. There are several private bus companies which have scheduled bus service to and from Istanbul, Ankara and the provincial capital of Kastamonu. Nearby towns such Kure, Cide, Abana and Bozkurt can be travelled to by mini-buses which run many times a day.
The town has many hotels, motels, and inns. It accommodates guests with a capacity of 400 available beds (2002).